Focal Discharges in Photosensitive Generalized Epilepsy

  • R. Naquet
  • A. Valin


The International League Against Epilepsy regularly proposes new classifications of epilepsy and epileptic syndromes (Gastaut and Merlis, 1970; Dreifuss et al., 1985). These classifications generally consider epilepsies with generalized seizures (generalized epilepsies) separately from those with partial or focal seizures (localization-related, partial, or focal epilepsies). In the most recent proposal of classification, it was recognized “that the dichotomy of generalized and localization-related epilepsies is not applicable in all cases because occasionally both generalized and focal features may be present in one patient, or neither of these features may be evident” (Dreifuss et al., 1985). If one goes into the details of one third of such classes of epilepsies (the first one being localization-related epilepsies and syndromes, the second one generalized epilepsies and syndromes) one will find:
  1. 3.1
    Epilepsies and syndromes with both generalized and focal seizures
    • Neonatal seizures

    • Severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy

    • Epilepsy with continuous spike waves during slow wave sleep

    • Acquired epileptic aphasia (Landau-Kleffner syndrome)

  2. 3.2

    Without unequivocal generalized or focal features.



Corpus Callosum Occipital Cortex Generalize Seizure Generalize Epilepsy Seizure Discharge 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Balzamo, E., Bert, J., Menini, Ch., and Naquet, R. (1975) Excessive light sensitivity in Papio papio: Its variations with age, sex and geographic origin. Epilepsia 16: 269–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beaumanoir, A., Gastaut, H., and Naquet, R. (1989) Seizures and Reflex Epilepsies, Editions Médecine et Hygiēne, Genēve, 568 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Bettendorf, L., Schoeffeniels, E., Naquet, R., Silva-Barrat, C., Riche, D., and Menini, Ch. (1989) Phosphorylated thiamine derivatives and cortical activity in the baboon Papio papio: Effect of intermittent light stimulation. J. Neurochem. 53: 80–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bickford, R.G., Sem-Jacobsen, C.W., White, P.T., and Daly, D. (1952) Some observations on the mechanism of photic and photometrazol activation. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 4: 275–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cobb, S. (1947) Photic driving as a cause of clinical seizures in epileptic patients. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.) 58: 70–71.Google Scholar
  6. Da Costa, L.M., Bostem, F., and Naquet, R. (1975) Des Pointes ondes spontanées à prédominance antèrieure aux manifestations paroxystiques induites par la SLI chez le Papio papio. Rev. EEG Neurophysiol. 5: 47–51.Google Scholar
  7. De Marco, P. (1983) Occipital evoked spike epilepsy in childhood. Clin. Electroencephalogr. 14: 221–224.Google Scholar
  8. Dell, M.B., Bonvallet, M., and Dell, P. (1951) Evolution corticale des crises epileptiques provoquées chez le chat. Rev. Neurol. 84: 595–602.Google Scholar
  9. Dimov, S., Breffeilh, J.L., Menini, Ch., and Naquet, R. (1972) Etude des potentiels évoqués visuels chez des jumelles présentant une photosensibilité excessive. Rev. EEG Neurophysiol. 2: 308–311.Google Scholar
  10. Dreifuss, F.E., Martinez-Lage, M., Roger, J., Seino, M., Wolf, P. and Dam, M. (1985) Proposal for classification of epilepsies and epileptic syndromes. Epilepsia 26: 268–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Engel, J. (1974) Selective photoconvulsive responses to intermittent, diffuse and patterned photic stimulation. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 37: 283–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fischer-Williams, M., Bickford, R.G., and Whis-nant, J.P. (1964) Occipito-parieto-temporal seizure discharge with visual hallucinations and aphasia. Epilepsia 5: 279–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fischer-Williams, M., Poncet, M., Riche, D., and Naquet, R. (1968) Light-induced epilepsy in the baboon, Papio papio: Cortical and depth recordings. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 25: 557–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. French J. D., Hernandez-Péon, R., and Livingston, R. (1955) Projections from cortex to the cephalic brain stem in the monkey. J. Neurophysiol. 18: 74–95.Google Scholar
  15. Fukuda, H., Valin, A., Bryère, P., Riche, D., Wada, J., and Naquet, R. (1988) Role of the fore-brain commissure and hemispheric independence in photosensitive response of epileptic baboon, Papio papio. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 69: 363–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fukuda, H., Valin, A., Menini, Ch., Boscher, C. De la Sayette, V., Riche, D., Kunimoto, M., Wada, J.A., and Naquet, R. (1889) Effect of macular and retinal coagulation on photosensitive epilepsy in the forebrain bisected baboon, Papio papio. Epilepsia, 30: 623–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gastaut, H. (1951) Les deux types de réponses photiques irradiées chez l’homme. La décharge myclonique hypersynchrone et la décharge myo-clonique par recrutement. Riv. Neurol. 21: 27–37.Google Scholar
  18. Gastaut, H. (1973) Dictionnaire des Epilepsies. Organisation Mondiale de la Sauté, Genève.Google Scholar
  19. Gastaut, H. (1982) A new type of epilepsy: Benign partial epilepsy of childhood with occipital spike-waves. Clin. Electroencephalogr. 13: 13–22.Google Scholar
  20. Gastaut, H., and Broughton, R. (1972) Epileptic seizures. Clinical and electrographic features, diagnosis and treatment. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL, 286 p.Google Scholar
  21. Gastaut, H., and Hunter, J. (1950) An experimental study of the mechanism of photic activation in idiopathic epilepsy. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 2: 263–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gastaut, H., and Merlis, J.K. (1970) Proposal for an international classification of the epilepsies. Epilepsia 11: 114–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gastaut, H., Roger, J., and Gastaut, Y. (1948) Les formes expérimentales de l’épilepsie humaine. I. L’épilepsie induite par la stimulation lumineuse intermittente rythmée, ou épilepsie photogénique. Rev. Neurol. 80: 161–183.Google Scholar
  24. Gastaut, H., and Vigouroux, M., Trevisan, C., and Regis, H. (1957) Le syndrome “hemiconvusion-hémiplegie-épilepsie” (syndrome H.H.E.). Rev. Neurol. 97: 37–52.Google Scholar
  25. Gastaut, H., Trevisan, C., and Naquet, R. (1958) Diagnostic value of electroenecephalographic abnormalities provoked by intermittent photic stimulation. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 10: 194–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gastaut, H., Roger, H., Faidherbe, J., Ouachi, S., and Franck, G. (1962) Jacksonian hemiconvulsive seizures. One sided generalized epilepsy. Epilepsia 3: 56–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hishikawa, Y., Yamamoto, J., Furuya, E., Yamada, Y., Mysaki, K., and Kaneko, Z. (1967) Photosensitive epilepsy: Relationships between the visual evoked responses and the epileptiform discharges induced by intermittent photic stimulation. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 23: 320–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Horton, R.W., and Meldrum, B.S. (1973) Seizures induced by allylglycine, 3-mercaptopropionic acid and 4-deoxypyridoxine in mice and photosensitive baboons, and different modes of inhibition of cerebral glutamic acid decarboxylase. Br. J. Pharmacol. 49: 52–63.Google Scholar
  29. Hunter, J., and Ingvar, D.H. (1955) Pathways mediating Metrazol-induced irradiation of visual impulses. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 7: 39–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jeavons, P.M., and Harding, G.F.A. (1975) Photosensitive Epilepsy. A Review of the Literature and a Study of 460 Patients. William Heinemann Books, London, 121 pp.Google Scholar
  31. Killam, K.F., Naquet, R., and Bert (1966) Paroxysmal responses to intermittent light stimulation in a population of baboons (Papio papio). Epilepsia 7: 215–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Killam, K.F., Killam, E.K., and Naquet, R. (1967) An animal model of light sensitive epilepsy. Elec-troencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 22: 97–513.Google Scholar
  33. Klass, D.W., and Fischer-Williams, M. (1976) Sensory stimulation sleep and sleep deprivation. In: Handbook of Electroencephlography Clinical Neurophysiology, Vol. 3, part D. A. Remond (ed.). Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 2–73.Google Scholar
  34. Löscher, W., and Schmidt, D. (1988) Which animal models should be used in the search for new anti-epileptic drugs. A proposal based on experimental and clinical considerations. Epilepsy Res. 2: 145–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Meldrum, B.S., Balzamo, E., Gadea, M., and Naquet, R. (1970) Photic and drug induced epilepsy in the baboon (Papio papio). The effect of isonia-zid, thiosemicarbazide, pyridoxine and amino-oxyacetic acid. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 29: 333–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Menini, Ch. (1976) Rôle du cortex frontal dans l’ép-ilepsie photosensible du singe Papio papio. J. Physiol. (Paris) 72: 5–44.Google Scholar
  37. Menini, Ch., and Naquet, R. (1986) Les myoclonies. Des myoclonies du Papio papio a certaines myoclonies humaines. Rev. Neurol. (Paris) 142: 3–28.Google Scholar
  38. Menini, Ch., Stutzmann, J.M., Laurent, H., and Valin, A. (1977) Les crises induites ou non par la stimulation lumineuse intermittente chez le “Papio papio” après injection d’allylglycine. Rev. EEG Neurophysiol. 7: 232–238.Google Scholar
  39. Moruzzi, G. (1946) L’Epilessia Sperimentale. Nicola Zanichelli, Bologne, 128 p.Google Scholar
  40. Naquet, R. (1973) Contribution of experimental epilepsy to understanding some particular forms in man. In: Epilepsy, Its Phenomenon in Man. M.A.B. Brazier (ed.). Academic Press, New York, pp. 37–45.Google Scholar
  41. Naquet, R. (1975) Genetic study of epilepsy in contribution of different models especially the photosensitive Papio papio. In: Growth and Development of the Brain. M.A.B. Brazier (ed.). Raven Press, New York, pp. 219–230.Google Scholar
  42. Naquet, R., and Poncet-Ramade, M. (1982) Paroxysmal discharges induced by intermittent light stimulation. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 35: 333–344.Google Scholar
  43. Naquet, R., and Wada, J. A. (1989) Role of the corpus callosum in photosensitive seizures of epileptic baboon, Papio papio. In: Frontal Lobe Seizures and Epilepsies. P. Chauvel, V. Delgado-Escueta, E. Halgren, and J. Bancaud (eds.). Raven Press, New York. In press.Google Scholar
  44. Naquet, R., Fegersten, L., and Bert, J. (1960) Seizure discharges localized to the posterior cerebral regions in man, provoked by intermittent photic stimulation. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 12: 305–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Naquet, R., Menini, Ch., and Catier, J. (1972) Pho-tically-induced epilepsy in Papio papio. The initiation of discharges and the role of the frontal cortex and of the corpus callosum. In: Synchronization of the EEG in the Epilepsies. M.A.B. Brazier and H. Petsche (eds.). Springer, Vienna, pp. 347–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Naquet, R., Menini, Ch., Riche, D., Silva-Barrat, C., and Valin, A. (1987) Photic epilepsy problems raised in man and animals. Ital. J. Neurol. Sci. 8: 437–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Naquet, R., Menini, Ch., Riche, D. Silva-Barrat, C., and Valin, A. (1989) Photic epilepsy in man and in the baboon Papio papio. In: The Anatomy of Epileptogenesis. B.S. Meldrum, I.A. Fezzendelli, and H.G. Wiefez (eds.). John Libbey, London, pp. 107–126.Google Scholar
  48. Newmark, M.E., and Penry, J.K. (1979) Photosensitivity and epilepsy. A review. Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  49. Panayotopoulos, C.P., Jeavons, P.M., and Harding, G.F.A. (1972) Occipital spikes and their relation to visual evoked responses in epilepsy, with particular reference to photosensitive epilepsy. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 32: 179–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Silva-Barrat, C., and Menini, Ch. (1984) The influence of intermittent light stimulation on potentials evoked by single flashes in photosensitive and non-photosensitive Papio papio. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 57: 448–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Silva-Barrat, C., Menini, Ch., Bryère, P., and Naquet, R. (1986) Multiunity activity analysis of cortical and subcortical structures in paroxysmal discharges and Grand Mal seizures in photosensitive baboons. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 64: 455–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Takahashi, T., and Tsukuhara, Y. (1976) Influence of color on the photoconvulsive response. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 41: 124–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tassinari, C.A., De Marco, P., Plasmati, R., Pantieri, R., Blanco, M., and Michelucci, R. (1988) Extreme somatosensory evoked potentials elicited by tapping of hands or feet in children: A somatosensory cerebral evoked potentials study. Neurophysiol. Clin. 18: 123–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Terzian, H., and Terzuolo, C. (1951) Richerche elet-trofisiologiche sull’epilessia fotica di Clementi. Arch. Fisiol. Fasc. 5: 301–320.Google Scholar
  55. Walter, W.G., Walter, V.J., Gastaut, H., and Gastaut, Y. (1948) Une forme électroencéphalo-graphique nouvelle de Fépilepsie: l’épilepsie photogénique. Rev. Neurol. 80: 613–614.Google Scholar
  56. Wilkins, A.J., Andermann, F., and Ives, J. (1975) Stripes, complex cells and seizures. Brain 98: 365–3809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wilkins, A. (1986) What is visual discomfort? TINS 9: 343–346.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Boston, Inc. 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Naquet
  • A. Valin

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations