Advertisement

Motor Activity and Antidepressant Drugs: A Proposed Approach to Categorizing Depression Syndromes and Their Animal Models

  • Martin H. Teicher
  • Natacha I. Barber
  • Janet M. Lawrence
  • Ross J. Baldessarini

Abstract

Affective disorders are characterized by disturbances in mood, cognition, and neurovegetative processes. Among the latter, dysregulation of appetite and weight, sleep, energy, and libido have received particular clinical attention. Current standard diagnostic criteria for major depression in the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic Manual (DSM-III) accommodate neurovegetative disturbances in either direction—deficits as well as excesses—and evaluation of these features is routine in the clinical assessment of depressed patients. These dysfunctions often serve as target symptoms for psychopharmacological treatment and as quantifiable behaviors that can be used to bridge the gap between animal models and relevant clinical disorders.

Keywords

Antidepressant Drug Activity Rhythm Bipolar Patient Maternal Separation Ultradian Rhythm 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Akiskal HS (1986): The clinical significance of the “soft” bipolar spectrum. Psychiatric Annals 16:667–671Google Scholar
  2. Akiskal HS, Downs J, Jordan P, Watson S, Daugherty D, Pruitt DB (1985): Affective disorders in referred children and younger siblings of manic-depressives. Arch Gen Psychiatry 42:996–1003PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anisman H, Remington G, Sklar LS (1979): Effects of inescapable shock on subsequent escape performance: catecholaminergic and cholinergic mediation of response initiation and maintenance. Psychopharmacology 61:107–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baldessarini RJ (1983): Biomedical Aspects of Depression and Its Treatment. Washington DC: APA PressGoogle Scholar
  5. Barber NI, Teicher MH, Baldessarini RJ (1988): Effects of selective monoaminergic reuptake blockade on activity rhythms in developing rats. Psychopharmacology (in press)Google Scholar
  6. Blackman RB, Tukey JW (1958): The Measurement of Power Spectra New York: DoverGoogle Scholar
  7. Campbell BA, Lyttle LD, Fibiger HC (1969): Ontogeny of adrenergic arousal and cholinergic inhibitory mechanisms in the rat. Science 166:635–637PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Campbell BA, Raskin LA (1978): Ontogeny of behavioral arousal: the role of environmental stimuli. J Comp Physiol Psychol 92:176–184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Colburn TR, Smith BM, Guarnini JJ, Simmons NN (1976): An ambulatory activity monitor with solid state memory. Instrument Soc Amer 12:117–122Google Scholar
  10. Craincross KD, Cox B, Forster C, Wren AF (1979): Olfactory projection systems, drugs and behaviour: a review. Psychoneuroendocrinology 4:253–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Finklestein SP, Campbell A, Stoll AL, Baldessarini RJ, Stinus L, Paskevitch PA, Domesick VB (1983a): Changes in cortical and subcortical levels of monoamine metabolites following unilateral ventrolateral cortical lesions in rats. Brain Res 271:279–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Finklestein SP, Teicher MH, Campbell A, Baldessarini RJ (1983b): Bilateral ventrolateral cortical lesions slow and accentuate ultradian activity rhythms in rats. Soc Neurosci Abstr 9:626Google Scholar
  13. Foster FG, Kupfer DJ (1975): Psychomotor activity as a correlate of depression and sleep in acutely disturbed psychiatric inpatients. Am J Psychiatry 132:928–931PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Garzon J, Del Rio J (1981): Hyperactivity induced in rats by long-term isolation: Further studies on a new animal model for the detection of antidepressants. Eur J Pharmacol 59:293–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Goodwin FK, Wirz-Justice A, Wehr TA (1982): Evidence that the pathophysiology of depression and the mechanism of antidepressant drugs both involve alterations in circadian rhythms. Adv Biochem Pharmacol 32:1–11Google Scholar
  16. Halberg F (1968): Physiological conditions underlying rhythmometry with special reference to emotional illness. In: Cycles Biologiques et Psychiatrie, DeAjuriaguerra J, ed. Paris: Masson et CieGoogle Scholar
  17. Halberg F, Johnson EA, Nelson W, Runge W, Sothern R (1972): Autorhythmometry procedures for physiological self-measurements and their analysis. Physiol Teacher 1:1–11Google Scholar
  18. Halberg F, Panofsky H (1961): Thermovariance spectra: method and clinical illustrations. Exp Med Surg 19:284–309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Heikilla RE, Manzino L (1984): Behavioral properties of GBR 12909, GBR 13069, and GBR 13098: specific inhibitors of dopamine uptake. Eur J Pharmacol 103: 241–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Higley JD, Suomi SJ, Scanlon JM, McKinney WT (1982): Plasma Cortisol as a predictor of individual depressive behavior in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Soc Neurosci Abstr 8:461Google Scholar
  21. Hobson JA, McCarley RW, Wyzinsky TW: Sleep cycle oscillation: Reciprocal discharge by two brainstem neuronal groups. Science 189:55–58Google Scholar
  22. Katz RJ, Roth KA, Carroll BJ (1981): Acute and chronic stress effects on open field activity in the rat: implications for a model of depression. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 5:247–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Killrell EM, Satinoff E (1988): Diurnal rhythms of body temperature, drinking and activity over reproductive cycles. Physiol Behav 42:477–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kripke DF (1974): Ultradian rhythms in sleep and wakefulness. In Advances in Sleep Research, Vol 1, Weitzmen ED, ed. New York: Spectrum PublicationGoogle Scholar
  25. Kripke DF, Mullaney DJ, Atkinson M, Wolf S (1978): Circadian rhythm disorders in manic-depressives. Biol Psychiatry 13:335–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Kripke DF, Wyborney VG (1980): Lithium slows rat circadian activity rhythms. Life Sci 26:1319–1321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kupfer DJ, Foster FG (1973): Sleep and activity in psychotic depression. J Nerv Ment Dis 156:341–348PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kupfer DJ, Weiss BL, Foster FG, Detre TP, Delgado J, McPartland R (1974): Psychomotor activity in affective states. Arch Gen Psychiatry 30:765–768PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Liebowitz MR, Klein DF (1979): Hysteroid dysphoria. Psychiatr Clin North Am 2:555–575Google Scholar
  30. McKinney WT, Bunney WE (1969): Animal model of depression: review of evidence and implications for research. Arch Gen Psychiatry 21:240–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Moore-Ede MC, Czeisler CA, Richardson GS (1983): Circadian time keeping in health and disease. Part 1. Basic properties of circadian pacemakers. New Engl J Med 309:469–476PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nelson JC, Charney DS (1981): The symptoms of major depression. Am J Psychiatry 138:1–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nelson W, Tong YL, Lee JK, Halberg F (1979): Methods for cosinor-rhythmometry. Chronobiologia 6:305–323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Paykel ES (1971): Classification of depressed patients: A cluster analysis derived grouping. Br J Psychiatry 118:275–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pearlson GD, Robinson RG (1981): Suction lesions of the frontal cerebral cortex induce asymmetrical behavioral and catecholaminergic responses. Brain Res 218:233–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Randall PK, Campbell BA (1976): Ontogeny of behavioral arousal in rats: effect of maternal and sibling presence. J Comp Physiol Psychol 90:453–459PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rummel J, Lee JK, Halberg F (1974): Combined linear-nonlinear chronobiologic windows by least squares resolve neighboring components in a physiologic rhythm spectrum. In: Biorhythms and Human Reproduction, Ferin M, Halberg F, Richart RM, Vande Wiele RL, eds. New York: John Wiley SonsGoogle Scholar
  38. Siever LJ, Davis KL (1985): Overview: towards a dysregulation hypothesis of depression. Am J Psychiatry 142:1017–1031PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Simpson DM, Annau Z (1977): Behavioural withdrawal following several psychoactive drugs. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 7:59–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Teicher MH, Barber NI (1988): COSIFIT: Interactive program for simultaneous nonlinear least-squares multioscillator cosinor rhythm analysis of biological time-series data. (Submitted for publication)Google Scholar
  41. Teicher MH, Barber NI, Baldessarini RJ, Shaywitz BA (1988a): Amphetamine accelerates and attenuates ultradian activity rhythms in preweanling rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 29:517–523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Teicher MH, Flaum LE (1979): The ontogeny of ultradian and nocturnal activity rhythms in the isolated albino rat. Devel Psychobiol 12:441–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Teicher MH, Green WT (1977): A digital readout vibrational activity monitor for neonatal animals. Physiol Behav 18:747–750PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Teicher MH, Lawrence JM, Barber NI, Finklestein SP, Lieberman H, Baldessarini RJ (1986): Altered locomotor activity in neuropsychiatric patients. Prog Neuropharm Biol Psychiatry 10:755–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Teicher MH, Lawrence JM, Barber NI, Finklestein SP, Lieberman H, Baldessarini RJ (1988a): Circadian activity rhythm disruptions in geriatric major depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 45:913–918PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Teicher MH, Sussman AJ, Baldessarini RJ, Lieberman H (1988b): Motility rhythms in psychotic inpatients. Am Psychiatric Assoc Abstr 141:104Google Scholar
  47. Watson R, Hartman E, Shildkraut JJ (1972): Amphetamine withdrawal: Affective state, sleep patterns, and MHPG excretion. Am J Psychiatry 129:39–45Google Scholar
  48. Wehr TA, Muscettola G, Goodwin FK (1980): Urinary 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenyl-glycol circadian rhythms: early timing (phase-advance) in manicdepressives compared with normal subjects. Arch Gen Psychiatry 37:257–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Weiss JM (1968): Effects of coping responses on stress. J Comp Physiol Psychol 65:251–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Willner P (1984): The validity of animal models of depression. Psychopharmacology 83:1–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wolff EA III, Putnam FW, Post RM (1985): Motor activity in affective illness: the relationship of amplitude and temporal distribution to changes in affective state. Arch Gen Psychiatry 42:288–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Boston 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin H. Teicher
  • Natacha I. Barber
  • Janet M. Lawrence
  • Ross J. Baldessarini

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations