Advertisement

Social Zeitgebers: A Peer Separation Model of Depression in Rats

  • Cindy L. Ehlers
  • Tamara L. Wall
  • Stephan P. Wyss
  • R. Ian Chaplin

Abstract

The concept that loss and/or separation might play a pivotal role in the generation of a depressive episode has been a key point in several theories seeking to explain the etiology of affective disorder. Freud’s initial hypothesis suggested that a fixation (i.e., an arresting of psychological growth) at a highly dependent phase of development rendered a person much more vulnerable to the development of depression following a real or imagined loss in adult life (Freud, 1917). Elaborations of Freud’s theory have broadened the concept of loss to include experiences of separation and social rejection.

Keywords

Affective Disorder Maternal Separation Biological Rhythm Group House Affective Illness 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bowlby J (1960): Grief and mourning in infancy and early childhood. Psychoanal Study Child 15:9–52Google Scholar
  2. Bowden D, McKinney W (1972): Behavioral effects of peer separation, isolation, and reunion on adolescent male rhesus monkeys. Dev Psychobiol 5:353–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Britton D, Koob G, Rivier J, Vale W (1982): Intraventricular corticotropin-releasing factor enhances behavioral effects of novelty. Life Sci 31:363–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carroll B (1982): The dexamethasone suppression test for melancholia Br J Psychiatry 140:292–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carroll B, Greden J, Feinberg M (1980): Neuroendocrine disturbances and the diagnosis and aetiology of endogenous depression. Lancet i: 321–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ehlers C (1986): EEG stability following corticotropin-releasing factors in rats. Psychoneuroendocrinology 11:121–125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ehlers C, Frank E, Kupfer D (1988): Social Zeitgebers and biological rhythms: A unified approach to understanding the etiology of depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 45:948–952PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ehlers C, Havstad J (1982): Characterization of drug effects on the EEG by power spectral time band series analysis. Psychopharmacol Bull 18:43–47Google Scholar
  9. Ehlers C, Henriksen S, Wang M, Rivier J, Vale W, Bloom F (1983a): Corticotropinreleasing factor increases brain excitability and convulsive seizures in the rat. Brain Res 278:332–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ehlers C, Reed T, Henriksen S (1986): Effects of corticotropin-releasing factor and growth hormone releasing factor on sleep and activity in rats. Neuroendocrinology 42:467–474PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ehlers C, Russo P, Mandell A, Bloom F (1983b): Architecture of rat nocturnal locomotion: a predictive descriptor of the effects of antidepressant and antimanic treatments. Psychopharmacol Bull 19:692–695Google Scholar
  12. Freud S (1917): Mourning and melancholia. In: Collected Papers of Sigmund Freud, Vol IV Jones E ed. (1957) London: HogarthGoogle Scholar
  13. Garzon J, Del Rio J (1981): Hyperactivity induced in rats by long-term isolation: further studies on a new animal model for the detection of antidepressants. Eur J Pharmacol 74:278–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gillin J (1983): Sleep studies in affective illness: Diagnostic, therapeutic, and pathophysiological implications. Psychiatry Annals 13:367–384Google Scholar
  15. Gold P, Chrousos G, Kellner C, Post R, Roy A, Auqerinos P, Schulte H, Oldfield E, Loriaux L (1984): Psychiatric implications of basic and clinical studies with corticotropin-releasing factor. Am J Psychiatry 141:619–627PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Grant I (1979): Behavioral Disorders: Understanding Clinical Psychopathology. New York: Spectrum PublicationsGoogle Scholar
  17. Hofer M (1976): The organization of sleep and wakefulness after maternal separation in young rats. Dev Psychobiol 9:189–205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. James S, Wehr T, Sack D, Parry B, Rosenthal N (1985): Treatment of seasonal affective disorder with light in the evening. Br J Psychiatry 147:424–428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kupfer D (1978): Application of EEG sleep for the differential diagnosis and treatment of affective disorders. Pharmakopsychiatrie-Neuro-Psychopharmakologie 11:17–26Google Scholar
  20. Kupfer D, Reynolds C (1983): Neurophysiological studies of depression: state of the art. In: The Origins of Depression: Current Concepts and Approaches (Dahlem Konferezen), Angst J ed. Berlin: Springer-VerlagGoogle Scholar
  21. Lewy A, Sack R, Singer C (1985): Treating phase typed chronobiological sleep and mood disorders using appropriately timed bright artificial light. Psychopharmacol Bull 21:368–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. McKinney W, Moran E, Kramer G (1984): Separation in nonhuman primates as a model for human depression: neurobiological implications. In: Neurobiology of Mood Disorders, Post R, Ballanger J, eds. Baltimore: Williams and WilkensGoogle Scholar
  23. Nemeroff C, Widelov E, Bissette G, Walleus H, Karlsson I, Eklund K, Kilts C, Loosen P, Vale W (1984): Elevated concentrations of CSF corticotropin-releasing factor like immunoreactivity in depressed patients. Science 226:1342–1344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Reite M, Short R (1977): Nocturnal sleep in separated monkey infants. Arch Gen Psychiatry 35:1247–1253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Robertson J, Robertson J (1971): Young children in brief separation: a fresh look. Psychoanal Study Child 26:264–315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Sahakian B, Robbins T, Morgan M, Iverson S (1974): The effects of psychomotor stimulants on stereotypy and locomotor activity in socially-deprived and control rats. Brain Res 84:195–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Seay B, Hanson E, Harlow H (1962): Mother-infant separation in monkeys. Child Psychol Psychiatry 3:123–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Smith G, Anderson V (1984): Effects of maternal isolation on the development of activity rhythms in infant rats. Physiol Behav 33:751–756PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Spitz R, Wolf K (1946): Anaclitic depression: an inquiry into the genesis of psychiatric conditions in early childhood, II. Psychoanal Study Child 2:313–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Suomi S, Eisele C, Grady S, Harlow H (1975): Depressive behavior in adult monkeys following separation from family environment. J Abnorm Psychol 84:576–578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Suomi S, Harlow H, Domek E (1970): Effect of repetitive infant-infant separation of young monkeys. J Abnorm Psychol 76:161–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sutton R, Koob G, LeMoal M, Rivier J, Vale W (1982): Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) produces behavioural activation in rats Nature 297:331–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Valzelli L, Bernassconi S (1976): Psychoactive drug effect on behavioral changes induced by prolonged socio-environmental deprivation in rats. Phys Med 6:271–276Google Scholar
  34. Viswanathan N, Chandrashekaran M (1985): Cycles of presence and absence of mother mouse entrain the circadian clock of pups. Nature 317:530–531PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wehr T, Goodwin F (1983): Biological rhythms in manic-depressive illness. In: Circadian Rhythms in Psychiatry Wehr T, Goodwin F, eds. Pacific Grove: Boxwood Press.Google Scholar
  36. Wehr T, Wirz-Justice A (1982): Circadian rhythm mechanism in affective illness and in antidepressant drug action. Pharmacopsychiatria 15:31–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Weinstock M, Speiser Z, Ashkenazi R (1976): Biochemical and pharmacological studies on an animal model of hyperactivity states. In: The Impact of Biology on Modern Psychiatry, Gershon E, Belmaker R, Kety S, Rosenbaum M, eds. New York: PlenumGoogle Scholar
  38. Wever R (1985): Man in temporal isolation: Basic principles of the circadian system. In: Hours of Work Temporal Factors in Work Scheduling Folkard S, Monk T, eds. New York: John Wiley and SonsGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Boston 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cindy L. Ehlers
  • Tamara L. Wall
  • Stephan P. Wyss
  • R. Ian Chaplin

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations