• Eric Barrington Keverne
Part of the Readings from the Encyclopedia of Neuroscience book series (REN)


Olfactory stimuli play an important part in animal communication, and a special terminology has been used for substances that function in this manner. In 1932 Bethe employed the term ectohormone with reference to substances, such as insect sexual attractants, which are external rather than internal secretions and act as chemical messengers between individuals rather than between different parts of the same individual. This self-contradictory term went out of use following the introduction of the term pheromone, defined by Karlson and Butenandt in 1959 as “substances secreted to the outside of an individual and received by a second individual of the same species in which they release a specific reaction, for example, a definite behaviour or developmental process.”


Olfactory System Main Olfactory Bulb Olfactory Information Vomeronasal Organ Accessory Olfactory Bulb 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Further reading

  1. Breipohl W, ed. (1982): Olfaction and Endocrine Regulation. London: IRC PressGoogle Scholar
  2. Ritter FJ, ed (1979): Chemical Ecology: Odor Communication in Animals. Amsterdam: Biochemical Press, Elsevier North-HollandGoogle Scholar
  3. Stoddart DM, ed (1980): Olfaction in mammals. Symp Zoo Soc Lond 45. London: Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  4. Vandenbergh JG, ed (1983): Pheromones and Reproduction in Mammals. New York: Academic PressGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Boston, Inc. 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eric Barrington Keverne

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