Tissue Culture of Coniferous Trees

  • Allan John


Conifers or softwoods are general terms that are applied to members of the Gymnospermae, a group that is subdivided into Ginkogaceae, Taxaceae and Pinaceae (Dallimore and Jackson, 1954). Most economically important species are grouped in Pinaceae, which includes the Cupressineae (Cypress tribe), the Taxodineae (Cryptomeria and Sequoia) and the Abietineae (Fir tribe) which contains the important genera Pinus, Picea, Abies, Pseudotsuga, Cedrus and Larix.


Growth Substance Adventitious Shoot Coniferous Tree Seed Orchard Abscission Zone 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ball, E. (1950) ‘Differentiation in a Callus of Sequoia sempervirons’, Growth, 14, 295–325Google Scholar
  2. Bonga, J.M. (1977) ‘Applications of Tissue Culture in Forestry’, in J. Reinert and Y.P.S. Bajaj (eds.), Plant Cell and Organ Culture, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 93–108Google Scholar
  3. Bonga, J.M. (1982) ‘Vegetative Propagation in Relation to Juvenility, Maturity and Rejuvenation’, in J.M. Bonga and D.J. Durzan (eds.), Tissue Culture in Forestry, Nijhoff and Junk, The Hague, pp. 387–412Google Scholar
  4. Brown, C.L. and Sommer, H.E. (1977) ‘Bud and Root Differentiation in Conifer Cultures’, Tappi, 60, 72–3Google Scholar
  5. Boulay, M. (1979) ‘Propagation In Vitro du Douglas par Micropropagation de Germination Aseptique et Culture de Bourgeons Dormant’, Etudes Rech. AFOCEL, 12, 67–75Google Scholar
  6. Campbell, R.A. and Durzan, D.J. (1975) ‘Induction of Multiple Buds and Needles in Tissue Cultures of Picea glauca’, Can. J. Bot., 53, 1652–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Campbell, R.A. and Durzan, P.J. (1976) ‘Vegetative Propagation of Picea glauca by Tissue Culture’, Can. J. Forest Res., 6, 240–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chalupa, V. (1975) ‘Induction of Organogenesis in Forest Tree Tissue Cultures’, Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Cechosloveniae, 9, 39–50Google Scholar
  9. Chalupa, V. (1977a) ‘Organogenesis in Norway spruce and Douglas Fir Tissue Cultures’, Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Cechosloveniae, 10, 79–87Google Scholar
  10. Chalupa, V. (1977b) ‘Development of Isolated Norway Spruce and Douglas Fir Buds In Vitro’, Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Cechosloveniae, 10, 71–8Google Scholar
  11. Chalupa, V. and Durzan, D.J. (1973) ‘Growth of Norway Spruce (Picea abies) Tissue and Cell Cultures’, Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Cechosloveniae, 8, 111–25Google Scholar
  12. Cheah, K.T. and Cheng, T.Y. (1978) ‘Histological Analysis of Adventitious Bud Formation in Cultured Douglas Fir Cotyledons’, Am. J. Bot., 65, 845–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cheng, T.Y. (1975) ‘Adventitious Bud Formation in Culture of Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb. Franco)’, Plant Sci. Lett., 5, 97–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cheng, T.Y. (1976) ‘Vegetative Propagation of Western Hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) through Tissue Culture’, Plant Cell Physiol., 17, 1347–50Google Scholar
  15. Cheng, T.Y. (1977) ‘Factors Affecting Adventitious Bud Formation in Cotyledon Culture of Douglas Fir’, Plant Sci. Lett., 9, 179–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cheng, T.Y. and Voqui, T.H. (1977) ‘Regeneration of Douglas Fir Plantlets through Tissue Culture’, Science, 198, 306–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Coleman, W.K. and Thorpe, T.A. (1977) ‘In vitro Culture of Western Red Cedar (Thuja plicata Donn.) 1. Plantlet Formation’, Bot. Gaz., 138,298–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dallimore, W. and Jackson, A.B. (1954) A Handbook of Coniferae, Edward Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  19. David, A. (1982) ‘In Vitro Propagation of Gymnosperms’, in J.M. Bonga and D.J. Durzan (eds.), Tissue Culture in Forestry, Nijhoff and Junk, The Hague, pp. 72–108Google Scholar
  20. David, A. and Thomas, M.J. (1979) ‘Organogenèse et Multiplication Végétative In Vitro Chez les Gymnospermes’, Année Biologique 18, 381–416Google Scholar
  21. David, H., Isemukali, K. and David, A. (1978) ‘Obtention de Plants de Pin Maritime (Pinus pinaster sol.) à Partir de Brachyblasts au d’Apex Caulinaires de Très Jeunes Sujets Cultivés in vitro’, Compte. Rendu. Acad. Sci., 287, 245–8Google Scholar
  22. Durzan, D.J. (1979) ‘Progress and Promise in Forest Genetics’, in Paper and Science Technology; the Cutting Edge, Proceedings of the 50th Anniversary Conference of the Institute of Paper Chemistry, Appleton, Wisconsin, pp. 3160Google Scholar
  23. Durzan, D.J. and Steward, F.C. (1968) ‘Cell and Tissue Culture of White Spruce and Jack Pine’, Bimonthly Res. Notes, 24, 30Google Scholar
  24. Esau, K. (1965) Plant Anatomy, John Wiley and Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. Franclet, A. (1981) ‘Rajeunissement et Propagation Végétative des Ligneux’, Annales AFOCEL 1981, pp. 11–14Google Scholar
  26. Gautheret, R.J. (1934) ‘Cultur de Tissu Cambial’, Compt. Rendu. Acad. Sci., 198, 2195–6Google Scholar
  27. Horgan, K. and Aitken, J. (1981) ‘Reliable Plantlet Formation from Embryos and Seedling Shoot Tips of Radiata pine’, Physiologia Plantarum, 53, 170–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hussey, G. (1980) ‘Micropropagation’, Gardener, 106, 286–91Google Scholar
  29. Isikawa, H. (1975) ‘In Vitro Formation of Adventitious Buds and Roots on the Hypocotyl of Cryptomeria japonica’, Bot. Mag. Tokyo, 87, 73–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Isikawa, H. (1978) ‘Effects of Cytokinin and Morphactin on Bud Generation from Cryptomeria and Chamaecyparis Hypocotyl Segments Cultured In Vitro’, in T. Akihama and K. Nakajima (eds.), Long Term Research of Favourable Germ Plasm in Arbored Crops, Fruit Research Station, Japan, pp. 142–7Google Scholar
  31. Jansson, E. and Bornman, C.H. (1980) ‘In Vitro Phyllomorphic Regeneration of Buds and Shoots in Picea abies’, Phys. Plant., 49, 105–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jansson, E. and Bornman, C.H. (1981) ‘In Vitro Initiation of Adventitious Structures in Relation to the Abscission Zone in Needle Explants of Picea abies: Anatomical Considerations’, Phys. Plant., 53, 191–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. John, A. and Murray, B. (in press)Google Scholar
  34. Kleinschmidt, J. (1974) ‘Use of Vegetative Propagation for Plantation Establishment and Genetic Improvement, a Programme for Large Scale Cutting Propagation of Norway Spruce’, N.Z. J. Forest Sci., 4, 359–66Google Scholar
  35. La Rue, C.D. (1935) ‘Cultures of Spermatophyte Tissues’, Am. J. Bot., 22, 913–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Loo, S.W. and Wang, F.H. (1943) ‘The Culture of Young Conifer Embryos In Vitro’, Science, 98, 544–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mapes, M.O., Young, P.M. and Zaerr, J.B. (1981) ‘In Vitro Propagation of Douglas Fir Through the Induction of Precocious Axillary and Adventitious Buds’, in the Abstracts of Proceedings of an International Workshop on In Vitro Cultivation of Forest Tree Species,Fontainebleau, FranceGoogle Scholar
  38. McKeand, S.E. (1981) Loblolly Pine Tissue Culture — Present and Future Uses in Southern Forestry, School of Forest Resources, North Carolina State University Technical Report No. 64Google Scholar
  39. Mehra-Palta, A., Smeltzer, R.H. and Mott, R.L. (1977) ‘Hormonal Control of Induced Organogenesis from Excised Plant Parts of Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)’, in TAPPI Forest Biology Wood Chemistry Conference, 1977, pp. 15–20Google Scholar
  40. Minocha, S.C. (1980) ‘Callus and Adventitious Shoot Formation in Excised Embryos of White Pine (Pinus strobus)’, Can. J. Bot., 58, 366–70Google Scholar
  41. Mott, R.L. (1978) ‘Tissue Culture Propagation of Conifers’, in Propagation of Higher Plants Through Tissue Culture, Proceedings International Symposium, University of Tennessee, April 16–17, 1978, pp. 125–31Google Scholar
  42. Mott, R.L. (1981) ‘Trees’, in B.V. Conger (ed.), Cloning Agricultural Plants via In Vitro Techniques, CRC Press, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  43. Mott, R.L. and Amerson, H. (1981) ‘A Tissue Culture Process for the Clonai Production of Loblolly Pine Plantlets’, N. Carolina Agricult. Res. Serv. Tech. Bull. 271 Google Scholar
  44. Mott, R.L., Smeltzer, R.H. and Mehra-Palta, A. (1977) ‘An Anatomical and Cytological Perspective on Pine Organogenesis In Vitro’, in TAPPI Forest Biology Wood Chemistry Conference, 1977, pp. 9–14Google Scholar
  45. Patel, K.R. and Berlyn, G.P. (1981) ‘Genetic Instability of Multiple Buds of Pinus coulteri Regenerated from Tissue Culture’, Can. J. Forest Res., 12, 93–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rediske, J.H. (1978) ‘Vegetative Propagation in Forestry’, in Propagation of Higher Plants Through Tissue Culture, Proceedings International Symposium, University of Tennessee, April 16–17, 1978, pp. 35–43Google Scholar
  47. Reilly, K. and Brown, C.L. (1976) ‘In Vitro Studies of Bud and Shoot Formation in Pinus radiata and Pseudotsuga menziesii’, Georgia Forest Res. Paper, 86, pp. 1–9Google Scholar
  48. Reilly, K. and Washer, J. (1977) ‘Vegetative Propagation of Radiata Pine by Tissue Culture. Plantlet Formation from Embryonic Tissue’, N.Z. J. Forest Sci., 7, 199–206Google Scholar
  49. Reinert, J. (1956) ‘Dissociation of Cultures from Picea glauca into Small Tissue Fragments and Single Cells’, Science, 123, 457–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Schmidt, A. (1924) ‘Ueber di Chlorophyllbild im Koniferenembryo’, Bot. Arch., 5, 260–82Google Scholar
  51. Slankis, V. (1947) ‘Influence of Sugar Concentration on the Growth of Isolated Pine Roots’, Nature, 160, 645–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sommer, H.E. (1975) ‘Differentiation of Adventitious Buds on Douglas Fir Embryosln Vitro’, Proc. Int. Plant Prop. Soc., 25, 125–7Google Scholar
  53. Sommer, H.E. and Caldas, L.S. (1981) ‘In Vitro Methods Applied to Forest Trees’, in T.A. Thorpe (ed.), Plant Tissue Culture Methods and Applications, Academic Press, New York, pp. 349–58Google Scholar
  54. Sommer, H.E. and Brown, C.L. (1974) ‘Plantlet Formation in Pine Tissue Cultures’, Am. J. Bot. SuppL, 61, 11Google Scholar
  55. Sommer, H.E., Brown, C.L. and Kormanik, P.P. (1975) ‘Differentiation of Plant-lets of Longleaf Pine Cultured In Vitro’, Bot. Gaz., 136, 196–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sterling, C. (1949) ‘Preliminary Attempts in Larch Embryo Culture’, Bot. Gaz., 111, 90–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Thomas, M.J., Duhoux, E. and Vazart, J. (1977) ‘In Vitro Organ Initiation in Tissue Cultures of Biota orientalis and other species of the Cupressaceae’, Plant Sci. Lett., 8, 395–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Tranvan, H. (1979) ‘In Vitro Adventitious Bud Formation on Isolated Seedlings of Pinus sylvestris’, Biol. Plant. (Praha) 21, 230–3Google Scholar
  59. Vazart, J., Conciecao, M. da and Thomas, M.J. (1979) ‘Structure Anatomique et Cytologique de l’Hypocotyl du Biota orientalis L. au Stade de l’Etalement des Cotylédons’, Rev. Cytol. Biol. Vég., 2, 83–96Google Scholar
  60. Von Arnold, S. and Eriksson, T. (1979a) ‘Bud Induction on Isolated Needles of Norway Spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) Grown In Vitro’, Plant Sci. Lett., 15, 363–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Von Arnold, S. and Eriksson, T. (1979b) ‘Induction of Adventitious Buds on Buds of Norway Spruce (Picea abies) Grown In Vitro’, Physiol. Plant., 45, 29–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Von Arnold, S. and Eriksson, T. (1981) ‘In Vitro Studies of Adventitious Shoot Formation in Pinus contorta’, Can. J. Bot., 59, 870–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Webb, K.J. and Street, H.G. (1977) ‘Morphogenesis In Vitro of Pinus and Picea’, Acta Hort., 78, 259–69Google Scholar
  64. Winton, L.L. and Huhtinen, O. (1976) ‘Tissue Culture of Trees’, in E.J.P. Miksche (ed.), Modern Methods in Forest Genetics, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 243–64Google Scholar
  65. Winton, L.L. and Verhagen, S.A. (1977a) ‘Embryoids in Suspension Cultures of Douglas Fir and Loblolly Pine’, TAPPI Forest Biology and Wood Conference, 1977, pp. 21–4Google Scholar
  66. Winton, L.L. and Verhagen, S.A. (1977b) ‘Shoots from Douglas Fir Cultures’, Can. J. Bot., 55, 1246–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© John H. Dodds 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Allan John

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations