Noise Criteria and Regulations

  • John E. K. Foreman


The best definition of noise, as many experts will agree, is unwanted sound What is most indisputably unwanted about noise is its capacity to cause hearing loss and the manner in which it invades our everyday lives by causing annoyance. And these seriously limiting disabilities are far more insidiously acquired than most people realize.


Sound Level Noise Exposure Noise Control Temporary Threshold Shift Occupational Noise 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. (1).
    Ontario Ministry of the Environment. 1978. “Model Municipal Noise Control By-Law,” Final Report, August.Google Scholar
  2. (2).
    Province of Alberta. 1977. “The Planning Act,” Bill 15, s. 144.Google Scholar
  3. (3).
    Environment Canada. 1977. “A Guide to the Federal Environmental Assessment and Review Process.”Google Scholar
  4. (4).
    Pearsons, K. S., and R. L. Bennett. 1974. “Handbook of Noise Ratings,” NASA CR-2376, Washington, DC: National Aeronautics and Space Administration.Google Scholar
  5. (5).
    Irwin, J. D., and E. R. Graf. 1979. Industrial Noise and Vibration Control. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  6. (6).
    U.S. EPA. 1974. “Information on Levels of Environmental Noise Requisite to Protect Public Health and Welfare with an Adequate Margin of Safety,” Environmental Protection Agency Report 550/9–74-004.Google Scholar
  7. (7).
    The Occupational Safety and Health Actof 1970, S. 2193, Congressional Record (U.S.).Google Scholar
  8. (8).
    U. K. 1972. “Code of Practice for Reducing the Exposure of Employed Persons to Noise.” London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.Google Scholar
  9. (9).
    ISO. 1971. “Assessment of Occupational Noise Exposure for Hearing Conservation Purposes.” International Organization for Standardization, Recommendation R1999.Google Scholar
  10. (10).
    CHABA. 1975. “Hazardous Exposure to Intermittent and Steady-State Noise,” National Academy of Science and National Research Council Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics and Biomechanics. Also Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 39, (3), 451–464, (March 1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. (11).
    Magrab, E. B. 1975. Environmental Noise Control New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  12. (12).
    Beranek, L. L. 1960. Noise Reduction New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  13. (13).
    Beranek, L. L. 1971. Noise and Vibration Control. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  14. (14).
    ASHRAE. 1982. ASHRAE Handbook and Product Directory System Guide New York: American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc.Google Scholar
  15. (15).
    Beranek, L. L. 1950. “Noise Control in Office and Factory Spaces.” 15th Annual Meeting of the Chemical Engineering Conference, Trans. Bull., 18:26–33.Google Scholar
  16. (16).
    Shultz, T. J. 1972. “Noise Assessment Guidelines-Technical Background.” HUD Report No. TE/NA 172 BBN No. 2005R, prepared for USHUD, Office of Research and Technology, by Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc., Washington, DC: Department of Housing and Urban Development.Google Scholar
  17. (17).
    CMHC. 1986. “Road and Rail Noise: Effects on Housing.” Ottawa: Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation.Google Scholar
  18. (18).
    May, D. N. 1978. Handbook of Noise Assessment Toronto: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  19. (19).
    Hegvold, L. W. 1971. “Acoustical Design of Open-Planned Offices.” Canadian Building Digest CBD 139. Ottawa: National Research Council.Google Scholar
  20. (20).
    Warnock, A. C. C. 1974. “Acoustical Effects of Screens in Landscaped Offices.” Canadian Building Digest CBD 164. Ottawa: National Research Council.Google Scholar
  21. (21).
    Edwards, A. T., and J. Kowalewski. 1975. “Open-Office Acoustics—An Engineering Approach.” 89th Meeting of Acoustical Society of America, Austin, Tx.Google Scholar
  22. (22).
    Public Building Service. 1975. “Standard Methods of Test for the Direct Measurement (PBS-PCD:PBS-C1) and for the Sufficient Verification (PBS-PCD:PBS-C2) of Speech Privacy Potential”, Washington, DC: U.S. General Services Administration.Google Scholar
  23. (23).
    Moulder, R. 1975. “Open Plan Office Elements and Testing,” Proceedings of Noisexpo, Atlanta, Georgia, Apr. 30-May 2. Google Scholar
  24. (24).
    ISO. 1984. “Acoustics—Determination of Occupational Noise Exposure and Estimation of Noise-Induced Hearing Impairment.” International Standard ISO/DIS 1999–1984.Google Scholar
  25. (25).
    Reynolds, D. D. 1981. Engineering Principles of Acoustic-Noise and Vibration Control Toronto: Ally n and Bacon.Google Scholar
  26. (26).
    Lord, H., W. S. Gatley, and H. A. Evensen. 1980. Noise Control for Engineers New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  27. (27).
    OSHA. 1979. “Industrial Hygiene Field Operations Manual,” U.S. Department of Labor, OSHA Instruction CPL2–2.20, Chap. IV.Google Scholar
  28. (28).
    Miller, L. N. 1977. Hearing Protection—Start Now.” Sound and Vibration, May.Google Scholar
  29. (29).
    NIOSH. 1976. “List of Personal Hearing Protectors and Attenuation Data.” U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, NIOSH Publication 76–120.Google Scholar
  30. (30).
    NIOSH. 1979. “A Field Investigation of Noise Reduction Afforded by Insert-Type Hearing Protectors.” U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, NIOSH Publication 79–115.Google Scholar
  31. (31).
    Alberti, P. W. 1982. Personal Hearing Protection in Industry New York: Reever Press.Google Scholar
  32. (32).
    Benwell, D.H. 1986. “Draft National Environmental Noise Code.” Proceedings of 12th International Congress on Acoustics, Toronto, Canada, 24–31 July, Vol. 1, C9–6.Google Scholar
  33. (33).
    Shaw, Edgar A. G. 1985. “Occupational Noise Exposure and Noise-Induced Hearing Loss: Scientific Issues, Technical Arguments and Practical Recommendations.” Report prepared for the Special Advisory Committee on the Ontario Noise Regulation, APS707. Ottawa: National Research Council of Canada, October 30.Google Scholar
  34. (34).
    Report of Special Advisory Committee on The Noise Regulation to the Ontario Ministry of Labour, December 1985.Google Scholar
  35. (35).
    Eldred, K. M. 1974. “Assessment of Community Noise.” Noise Control Engineering, (Sept./Oct.), 88–95.Google Scholar
  36. (36).
    Shultz, T. J., 1972. Community Noise Ratings London: Applied Science Publications.Google Scholar
  37. (37).
    Miller, L. N. 1980. “Noise Criteria.” Lecture notes on Noise Control for Buildings and Manufacturing Plants prepared in conjunction with Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Inc., Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  38. (38).
    “Noise in the Human Environment,” vols. 1 and 2. Report of the Environment Council of Alberta, 8215–112 St., Edmonton, Alberta.Google Scholar
  39. (39).
    OECD. 1984. “Noise Abatement: Present Situation and Future Outlook (draft final report).” Environment Committee, Ad Hoc Group on Noise Abatement Policies, OECD, August.Google Scholar
  40. (40).
    OECD. 1985. “Strengthening Noise Abatement Policies.” Report of Environment Committee, OECD, August.Google Scholar
  41. (41).
    ISO. 1982. “Description and Measurement of Environmental Noise.” International Standards Organization 1996 Part 1.Google Scholar
  42. (42).
    ISO. 1983. “Acquisition of Data Pertinent to Land Use.” International Standards Organization 1996 Part 2.Google Scholar
  43. (43).
    ISO. 1983. “Application to Noise Limits.” International Standards Organization 1996 Part 3.Google Scholar
  44. (44).
    CSA. 1982. “Procedure for Performing a Survey of Sound Due to Industrial Institution or Commercial Activity.” CSA Standard Z107.53.Google Scholar
  45. (45).
    CSA. 1983. “Recommended Practice for the Prediction of Sound Levels Received at a Distance from an Industrial Plant.” CSA Standard Z107.55.Google Scholar
  46. (46).
    CSA. 1984. “Definitions of Common Acoustical Terms Used in CSA Standards.” CSA Standard Z107.0.Google Scholar
  47. (47).
    Gidamy, H. 1984. “Statement of General Principles and Recommendations.” CSA Task Force on Community Noise.Google Scholar
  48. (48).
    CMHC. 1981. “New Housing and Airport Noise.” Central Mortgage and Housing Report NHA5185 81/05.Google Scholar
  49. (49).
    Ontario Environmental Protection Act, SO 1971, c.86 (as amended).Google Scholar
  50. (50).
    “Acoustic Technology Courses,” Vols. 1–3, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, July 1977.Google Scholar
  51. (51).
    “Summary of Quantitative S and V Criteria in the Model Municipal Noise Control By-Law.” Ontario Ministry of the Environment, August 1978.Google Scholar
  52. (52).
    “Noise Level Guidelines.” Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 1984.Google Scholar
  53. (53).
    “Initial Comments and Procedures for Noise Impact on Proposed Residential Subdivisions.” Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 1986.Google Scholar
  54. (54).
    “Method for Prediction of Road Traffic Noise.” Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 1986.Google Scholar
  55. (55).
    EPA. 1981. “Noise Effects Handbook.” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA 550–9-82–106. (Reprinted by Ontario Ministry of the Environment.)Google Scholar
  56. (56).
    “Land Use Policy Near Airports.” Ontario Ministry of Housing, 2M/3–78/PW-43, March 1978.Google Scholar
  57. (57).
    “Guidelines on Noise and New Residential Development Adjacent to Freeways.” Ontario Ministry of Housing, April 1979.Google Scholar
  58. (58).
    “Land Use Planning for Noise Control in Residential Communities.” Ontario Ministry of Housing, August 1980.Google Scholar
  59. (59).
    Barry, T. M., and J. A. Regan. 1978. “FHWA Highway Traffic Noise Prediction Model.” U.S. Federal Highway Administration Report FHWA-RD-77–108.Google Scholar
  60. (60).
    Lang, J., and G. Jensen. 1970. “The Environmental Health Aspect of Noise Research and Control.” World Health Organization Report EVR02631. Copenhagen, Denmark: WHO Regional Office for Europe.Google Scholar
  61. (61).
    Transport Canada. 1985. “Land Use in the Vicinity of Airports,” 6th edition. TP1247E or TP1247F, Ottawa: Transport Canada.Google Scholar
  62. (62).
    Hirschorn, M. IAC Noise Control Reference Handbook Bronx, NY: Industrial Acoustics Company.Google Scholar
  63. (63).
    ASHRAE. 1987. HVAC Systems and Applications Atlanta, GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc.Google Scholar
  64. (64).
    Foreman, J. E. K. 1986. “Psychoacoustic Study of Human Response to Transmission Line Noise.” Proceedings of 12th International Congress on Acoustics, Toronto, Canada. July 1986. Vol. 1, Section C1–7, 23–31.Google Scholar
  65. (65).
    Pearsons, Bennett, and Fidell. 1979. “Initial Study on the Effects of Transformer and Transmission Line Noise on People, Volume 1: Annoyance.” Report to Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA.Google Scholar
  66. (66).
    Horonjeff, Bennett, and Teffeteller. 1979. “Initial Study of the Effects of Transformer and Transmission Line Noise on People, Volume 2: Sleep Interference.” Report to Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Van Nostrand Reinhold 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • John E. K. Foreman
    • 1
  1. 1.Sound and Vibration LaboratoryThe University of Western OntarioLondonCanada

Personalised recommendations