Research and Development

  • Sidney M. Levy


The quality and level of research and developement in Japan is a subject of concern to both industry and government. The Japanese government has been uneasy about the quality of research in their country, feeling that their efforts lag far behind the United States and Europe, even though Japan spends 2.81 % of its gross domestic expenditures on R&D, while only Germany and France come close with 2.67% and 2.26%, respectively, trailing a U.S. 2.77% gross domestic expenditure. This feeling of lagging behind might be due to Japan’s propensity to feel insecure in its position among world powers.


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© Van Nostrand Reinhold 1990

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  • Sidney M. Levy

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