Measurements in three dimensions: strike and dip, formation thickness and depth

  • Alex Maltman


We are beginning to see why geological maps are such a powerful and convenient means of conveying information about the three-dimensional configuration of rocks. Nevertheless, it is often necessary to specify the arrangement in words or numbers. Geologists do this by using the concept of strike and dip. The general idea was introduced in section 2.3.1; the first part of this chapter explains it in detail. The second part of the chapter expands on methods of subsurface projection and some useful measurements that can be made from maps. These techniques are of use in applied geology where, for many purposes, the work will have to be done as accurately as possible, especially if sums of money are at risk. Some of the corrections that may have to be borne in mind for this kind of mapwork are introduced.


Horizontal Distance Coal Measure Strike Direction Vertical Thickness Formation Depth 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Selected further reading

  1. Rowland, S.M.(1986).Structural analysis and synthesis, Oxford, Blackwell.Google Scholar
  2. Ragan, D.M.(1985).Structural geology. An introduction to geometrical techniques, 3rd end, New York, WileyGoogle Scholar
  3. Dennison, J.M.(1968). Analysis of geologic structures. New York, Norton.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Alex Maltman 1990

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  • Alex Maltman

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