• John B. Liljedahl
  • Paul K. Turnquist
  • David W. Smith
  • Makoto Hoki


Transmitting engine power to the drawbar in agricultural and other off-highway vehicles is achieved through traction devices, namely wheels and tracks. Of the three principal ways of transmitting tractor-engine power into useful work—power takeoff, hydraulic, and drawbar—the least efficient and most used method is the drawbar. Basic configurations of wheels and tracks are modified to meet special operating conditions in various parts of the world. The predominate traction device is the pneumatic tire. The majority of this chapter deals with the theory and operating parameters of pneumatic tires for agricultural tractors. Terminology used in this chapter conforms, when possible, to ASAE Standard: ASAE S296.2.


Paddy Field Soil Strength Rear Wheel Wheel Slip Tractive Efficiency 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ashmore, C., J. L. Turner, and E. C. Burt. “Predicting Tractive Performance of Logskidder Tires.” ASAE Paper 85-1579, 1985.Google Scholar
  2. Bailey, A. C., and E. C. Burt. “Performance of Tandem, Dual, and Single Tires.” Trans. of ASAE, vol. 24, no. 5, 1981, p. 1103.Google Scholar
  3. Burt, E. C., et al. “Combined Effects of Dynamic Load and Travel Reduction on Tire Performance.” Trans. of ASAE, vol. 22, no. 1, 1979, p. 40.Google Scholar
  4. Dwyer, M. J. Some Aspects of Tyre Design and Their Effect on Agricultural Tractor Performance. Institution of Mechanical Engineers, England, 1975.Google Scholar
  5. Dwyer, M. J. “The Tractive Performance of Wheeled Vehicles.” J. Terramechanks, vol. 21, no. 1, 1984, p. 19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dwyer, M. J., and G. Pearson, “A Field Comparison of the Tractive Performance of Two-and Four-Wheel Drive Tractors.” J. Agric. Eng’g Res., vol. 21, 1976, pp. 77–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ellis, R. W. “Agricultural Tire Design Requirements and Selection Considerations.” ASAE Distinguished Lecture Series (Tractor Design No. 3), Dec. 13, 1977.Google Scholar
  8. Freitag, D. R. “A Dimensional Analysis of the Performance of Pneumatic Tires on Soft Soils.” USAE Waterways Experiment Station, Technical Rep. No. 3-688, Aug. 1965.Google Scholar
  9. Freitag, D. R. “Soil Dynamics as Related to Traction and Transport.” Proceedings of International Conference on Soil Dynamics, vol. 4, Auburn, AL, June 1985.Google Scholar
  10. Reed, I. F., A. W. Cooper, and C. A. Reeves. “Effects of Two-Wheel and Tandem Drives on Traction and Soil Compacting Stresses.” Trans. of ASAE, vol. 2, no. 1, 1959, p. 22.Google Scholar
  11. Tanaka, T. “Operation in Paddy Fields: State-of-the-Art Report.” J. Terramechanics, vol. 21, no. 2, 1984, p. 153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Taylor, J. H. “Lug Spacing Effect on Traction of Pneumatic Tractor Tires.” Trans. of ASAE, vol. 17, no. 2, 1974, p. 195.Google Scholar
  13. Taylor, J. H., E. C. Burt, and A. C. Bailey. “Radial Tire Performance in Firm and Soft Soils.” Trans. of ASAE, vol. 19, no. 6, 1976, p. 1062.Google Scholar
  14. Taylor, J. H., et al. “Multipass behavior of a pneumatic tire in tilled soils.” Trans. of ASAE, vol. 25, no. 5, 1982, p. 1229.Google Scholar
  15. Turnage, G. W. “Tire Selection and Performance Prediction for Off-Road Wheeled-Vehicle Operations.” Proceedings of Fourth International Conference of the International Society for the Terrain Vehicle Systems, vol. 1, Stockholm, Sweden, Apr. 1972.Google Scholar
  16. Wismer, R. D., and H. J. Luth, “Off-road Traction Prediction for Wheeled Vehicles.” Trans. of ASAE, vol. 17, no. 1, 1974, p. 8.Google Scholar

Suggested Reading

  1. Agricultural Engineers Yearbook, American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 1985.Google Scholar
  2. Bailey, P. H. “The Comparative Performance of Some Traction Aids.” J. Agric. Eng’g Res. (England), vol. 1, no. 1, 1956.Google Scholar
  3. Barger, E. L., and J. Roberts. “Effect of Tire Wear on Tractor Performance.” Agric. Engr., vol. 20, May 1939, pp. 191–194.Google Scholar
  4. Bekker, M. G. Theory of Land Locomotion. The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 1956.Google Scholar
  5. Burt, E. C., R. L. Schafer, and J. H. Taylor, “Similitude of a Model Traction Device: Part I—Prediction of the Dynamic Traction Ratio, Part II—Prediction of Wheel Sinkage. Trans. of ASAE, vol. 17, no. 4, 1974, p. 662.Google Scholar
  6. Caterpillar Performance Handbook, 3d ed. Caterpillar Tractor Company. Peoria, IL, Jan. 1973.Google Scholar
  7. Davidson, J. B., E. V. Collins, and E. G. McKibben. “Tractive Efficiency of the Farm Tractor.” Iowa Agric. Expt. Sta. Res. Bull, vol. 189, Sept. 1935.Google Scholar
  8. Deere & Co. Fundamentals of Service—Tires and Tracks. John Deere Service Publications, Moline, IL, 1970.Google Scholar
  9. Domier, K. W., D. H. Friesen, and J. S. Townsend. “Traction Characteristics of Two-Wheel Drive, Four-Wheel Drive and Crawler Tractors.” Trans. of ASAE, vol. 14, no. 3, 1971, p. 520.Google Scholar
  10. Dwyer, M. J., D. W. Evernden, and M. McAllister. Handbook of Agricultural Tyre Performance, 2d ed. National Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Wrest Park, Silsoe, Bedford, England, Apr. 1976.Google Scholar
  11. Firestone Tire and Rubber Company. Agricultural Tire Engineering Data, 1966.Google Scholar
  12. Freitag, D., R. L. Schafer, and R. D. Wismer. “Similitude Studies of Soil Machine Systems.” Trans. of ASAE, vol. 13, no. 2, 1970, p. 201.Google Scholar
  13. Gee-Clough, D. “The Special Problem of Wetland Traction and Flotation.” J. Agric. Eng’g Res., vol. 32, 1985, pp. 279–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gill, W. R., and G. E. Vandenberg. “Soil Dynamics in Tillage and Traction.” Agriculture Handbook No. 316. Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1967.Google Scholar
  15. Karafiath, L. L., and E. A. Nawatzki. Soil Mechanics for Off-Road Vehicle Engineering. TransTech Publications, Rockport, MA, 1978.Google Scholar
  16. Lambe, T. W., and R. V. Whitman. Soil Mechanics. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978.Google Scholar
  17. Langhaar, H. L. Dimensional Analysis and Theory of Models. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978.Google Scholar
  18. McKibben, E. G., and J. B. Davidson. “Effort of Inflation Pressure on the Rolling Resistance of Pneumatic Implement Tires.” Agric. Engr., vol. 21, Jan. 1940, pp. 25–26.Google Scholar
  19. McKibben, E. G., and J. B. Davidson. “Effect of Outside and Cross-sectional Diameters on the Rolling Resistance of Pneumatic Implement Tires.” Agric. Engr., vol. 21, Feb. 1940, pp. 57–58.Google Scholar
  20. Murphy, G. Similitude in Engineering. Ronald Press, New York, 1950.Google Scholar
  21. Rubber Manufacturers Association. Care and Service of Farm Tires. Rubber Manufacturers Association, Washington, DC, 1973.Google Scholar
  22. Soehne, W. “Kraftubertranung Zwischen Schepperreiffen und Ackerboden (Stress Transmission Between Tractor Tires and Soils).” Grundl. Landtech., vol. 3, 1952, pp. 75–78.Google Scholar
  23. Southwell, P. H. “An Investigation of Traction and Traction Aids.” Trans. of ASAE, vol. 7, no. 2, 1964, p. 190.Google Scholar
  24. Taylor, James H. “Lug Angle Effect on Traction Performance of Pneumatic Tractor Tires.” Trans. of ASAE, vol. 16, no. 1, 1973, p. 16.Google Scholar
  25. Taylor, James H. “Comparative Traction Performance of R-1, R-3, and R-4 Tractor Tires.” Trans. of ASAE, vol. 19, no. 1, 1976, p. 14.Google Scholar
  26. Vandenberg, G. E., and W. R. Gill. “Pressure Distribution Between a Smooth Tire and the Soil.” Trans. of ASAE, vol. 5, no. 2, 1962, p. 105.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Van Nostrand Reinhold 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • John B. Liljedahl
    • 1
  • Paul K. Turnquist
    • 2
  • David W. Smith
    • 3
  • Makoto Hoki
    • 4
  1. 1.Agricultural Engineering DepartmentPurdue UniversityUSA
  2. 2.Agricultural Engineering DepartmentAuburn UniversityUSA
  3. 3.Technical Center Deere & CompanyUSA
  4. 4.Department of Agricultural MachineryMie UniversityTsuJapan

Personalised recommendations