Particulate Contaminant Descriptions and Definitions

  • Alvin Lieberman


Particulate contaminants can be either solid or liquid. Many of these materials were originally suspended in air or in a process fluid; others derive from nearby sources, such as activities of personnel working in the cleanroom or operations of process equipment. Until particles are about to contact a product or already have been deposited upon that product, some schools of thought consider that any particles remote from critical areas are not really contaminants, but simply environmental components. Even so, because the fluid in which they are suspended will probably contact the product sooner or later, it is necessary to keep that fluid as clean as possible.


Particle Size Distribution Atmospheric Aerosol Clean Area Aerosol Size Distribution Contamination Control 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allen, D. T., & Palen, E., 1989. Recent Advances in Aerosol Analysis by Infrared Spectroscopy. Journal of Aerosol Science 20(4):441–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andreas, M. O., 1983. Soot Carbon and Excess Fine Potassium: Long-Range Transport of Combustion-Derived Aerosols. Science 220(4602): 1148–1151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Augustus, P., 1985. Detection of Fe and Ni Surface Precipitates by TEM. Semiconductor International 8(11):88–91.Google Scholar
  4. Borchert, S. J., 1986. Particulate Matter in Parenteral Products: A Review. Journal of Parenteral Science and Technology 40(5):212–241.Google Scholar
  5. Brar, A. S., & Narayan, P. B., 1988. Quality Control Analysis Reduces Disk Drive Failures. Research and Development 30(5):84–86.Google Scholar
  6. Bullin, J. A., et al., 1985. Aerosols near Urban Street Intersections. Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association 35(4):355–358.Google Scholar
  7. Ensor, D. S., Donovan, R. P., & Locke, B. R., 1987. Particle Size Distributions in Clean Rooms. Journal of Environmental Science 29(6):44–49.Google Scholar
  8. Friedlander, S. K., 1977. Smoke, Dust and Haze, New York: J. Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  9. Gavrilovic, J., 1988. Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy for Bulk and Surface Analysis of Particulate Contaminants. Solid State Technology 28(4):299–302.Google Scholar
  10. Junge, C. E., 1963. Air Chemistry and Radioactivity, New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  11. Knollenberg, R. G., 1988. Sizing Particles at High Sensitivity in High Molecular Scattering Environments. Proceedings of the 3rd Institute of Environmental Science Annual Technical Meeting, pp. 428–435, May 1987, San Jose, CA.Google Scholar
  12. Koellen, D. S., & Saxon, D. I., 1985. Application of Surface Analysis: Detection and Identification of Contamination on Semiconductor Devices. Microcontami-nation 3(7):47–55.Google Scholar
  13. Lieberman, A., 1971. Comparison of Continuous Measurement of Interior and Exterior Aerosol Levels. Paper read at American Industrial Hygiene Association Conference, May 24, 1971, Toronto.Google Scholar
  14. Morey, P. R., & Feeley, J. C, 1988. Microbiological Aerosols Indoors in Workplaces, Schools and Homes. ASTM Standardization News 16(12):54–58.Google Scholar
  15. Muggli, R. Z., & Andersen, M. E., 1985. Raman Micro-Analysis of Integrated Circuit Contamination. Solid State Technology 28(4):287–291.Google Scholar
  16. Vander Wood, T. B., & Rebstock, J. M., 1988. Using Automated Analysis to Identify Cleanroom Particulate Contaminants. Microcontamination 6(2):24–27.Google Scholar
  17. Whitby, K. T., Husar, R. B., & Liu, B. Y. H., 1972. The Aerosol Size Distribution of Los Angeles Smog. In Aerosols and Atmospheric Chemistry, ed. G. M. Hidy, pp. 237–264. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Van Nostrand Reinhold 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alvin Lieberman

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations