Contamination Control Overview
Many high-technology products currently manufactured are affected adversely if contamination is deposited in or on the product during manufacture or use. Contamination can be defined as any condition, material, process, or effect that can degrade quality, performance, or yield for any product. The product can be an electronic device, an optical or mechanical assembly, a pharmaceutical product or device, or essentially any modern “high-technology” product. The product can also be a simple system, such as a food item or plant that can be affected adversely by airborne bacteria. A contaminant can be a particulate or a gaseous material; it can be a harmful electric field or an excessive vibration level. It can be the condition of excessive moisture (relative humidity) in an assembly area, or it can be a high light flux at harmful wavelengths in a lithographic operation. It can be an excess of lubricant in a precise mechanical device, or it can be a condition of inadequate lubrication. An examination of an ultralarge-scale integrated (ULSI) semiconductor device manufacturing requirement might result in the conclusion that the entire manufacturing operation must use ultraclean technology (Ohmi 1988). As a strong example, regarding the design and operation of present-day logic and memory devices used in computers, it can be concluded that contamination control is a vital necessity, without which no computer or any of the many microprocessor-controlled devices in our modern world would be operating today. The dimensions of the circuitry used in these devices simply does not allow operation if the particulate contaminants found in “normal” air were to deposit upon these devices during the manufacturing process. The manufacturer must not only control particulate and vapor contamination but also control exposure to high-energy conditions and excessively variable thermal conditions, ensure freedom from vibration, and eliminate excessive process variations. These precautions are required during the manufacturing operation, during storage, and, in many cases, during product operation.
KeywordsAirborne Bacterium Manufacturing Operation Contamination Control Optical Particle Counter Vital Necessity
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