Cereal Foods: Wheat, Corn, Rice, Barley, and Other Cereals and Their Products

  • Claudia Lintas
  • Aldo Mariani-Costantini


The role of cereals as a staple food in the history and evolution of Mediterranean peoples’ lifestyles is well known and generally acknowledged. In ancient times pulte autem, non pane, vixisse longo tempore Romanos menifestum (on puls however not on bread the Romans were fed for a long period) (Pliny). The puls mentioned was a porridge made by boiling ground cereals in water or milk. At that time, Triticum species with naked caryopses (T. turgidum, T durum Desp.) were not cultivated and not used in breadmaking. Only barley and, particularly in archaic Latium, emmer, named by the Romans “far” or “adoreum,” and now identified as T. dicoccum Scrk., were available.


Dietary Fiber Wheat Flour Phytic Acid Brown Rice Aleurone Layer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Asp, N.-G. 1986. Effects of extrusion-cooking on the nutritional value of foods. In Pasta and Extrusion-Cooked Foods, Chr. Mercier and C. Cantarelli, eds., pp. 9–13. Tecnoalimenti Food and Nutrition Technology Series 1.Google Scholar
  2. Benedito de Barber, C., J. Martinez, and S. Barber. 1977. Effects of parboiling on the chemical and nutritional characteristics of rice bran. In Rice By-Products Utilization, vol. IV, S.Google Scholar
  3. Barber and E. Tortosa, eds., pp. 121–130. Valencia, Spain: Int. Agroquimica Tecnol. Alimentos. CEREAL FOODS 99Google Scholar
  4. Betschart, A. A. 1978. Improving protein quality in bread. Nutritional benefits and realities. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 105: 703–734.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Betschart, A. A. 1988. Nutritional quality of wheat and wheat foods. In Wheat: Chemistry and Technology, vol. II, Y. Pomeranz, ed., pp. 91–130. St. Paul, Minn.: AACC.Google Scholar
  6. Bhattacharya, K. R., and S. Z. Ali. 1985. Changes in rice during parboiling and properties of parboiled rice. Adv. Cereal Sci. Technol. 7: 105–167.Google Scholar
  7. Bhatty, R. S., and B. G. Rossnagel. 1980. Lipid and fatty acid composition of Riso 1508 and normal barley. Cereal Chem 57: 382–386.Google Scholar
  8. Bjorck, I., M. Nyman, and N.-G. Asp. 1984. Extrusion cooking and DF: effects on DF content and on degradation in the rat intestinal tract. Cereal Chem. 61: 174–179.Google Scholar
  9. Bodwell, C. E. 1985. Aminoacid content as an estimate of protein quality for humans. In Digestibility and Aminoacid Availability in Cereals and Oilseeds, J. W. Finley and D. T. Hopkins, eds., pp. 1–14. St. Paul, MN: AACC.Google Scholar
  10. Chung, O. K., and Y. Pomeranz. 1985a. Aminoacids in cereal proteins and protein fractions. In Digestibility and Aminoacid Availability in Cereals and Oilseeds, J. W. Finley and D. T. Hopkins, eds., pp. 65–108. St. Paul, MN: AACC.Google Scholar
  11. Chung, O. K., and Y. Pomeranz. 1985b. Functional and nutritional characteristics of cereal proteins. In Digestibility and Aminoacid Availability in Cereals and Oilseeds, J. W. Finley and D. T. Hopkins, eds., pp. 169–231. St. Paul, MN: AACC.Google Scholar
  12. Cubadda, R., G. Fabriani, and P. Resmini. 1968. Variazioni della lisina utilizzabile nelle paste alimentari indotte dai processi tecnologici di essiccamento. Quad. Nutr. 28: 199–208.Google Scholar
  13. Davis, K. R., R. F. Cain, L. J. Peters, D. LeTourneau, and J. McGinnis. 1981. Evaluation of the nutrient composition of wheat. II. Proximate analysis, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and pyridoxine. Cereal Chem. 58: 116–120.Google Scholar
  14. Davis, K. R., L. J. Peters, R. F. Cain, D. LeTourneau, and J. McGinnis. 1984. Evaluation of the nutrient composition of wheat. III. Minerals. Cereal Foods World 29: 246–248.Google Scholar
  15. Douglass, J. S., and R. H. Matthews. 1982. Nutrient content of pasta products. Cereals Food World 27: 558–561.Google Scholar
  16. Eggum, B. O. 1979. The nutritional value of rice in comparison with other cereals. In Chemical Aspects of Rice Grain Quality, pp. 91–111. Los Banos, Philippines: Int. Rice Res. Inst.Google Scholar
  17. Englyst, H. N., and J. H. Cummings. 1985. Digestion of the polysaccharides of some cereal foods in the human small intestine. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 42: 778–787.Google Scholar
  18. Englyst, H. N., V. Anderson, and J. H. Cummings. 1983. Starch and non-starch polysaccharides in some cereal foods. J. Sci. Food Agric. 34: 1434–1440.Google Scholar
  19. FAO 1987–89. FAO Production Yearbooks. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization.Google Scholar
  20. Ferretti, R. J., and D. A. Levander. 1974. Effect of milling and processing on the selenium content of grains and cereal products. J. Agr. Food Chem. 22: 10491051.Google Scholar
  21. Graham, G. G. 1977. Factors affecting the human nutritional value of cereals grains. In Nutritional Evaluation of Cereal Mutants, pp. 1–12. Vienna: IAEA.Google Scholar
  22. Grzybowski, R. A., and B. J. Donnelly. 1979. Cooking properties of spaghetti: factors affecting cooking quality. J. Agric. Food Chem. 27:380. 100 C. Lintas and A. Mariani-CostantiniGoogle Scholar
  23. Hoseney, R. Carl. 1986. Rice, oat, and barley processing. In Principles of Cereal Science and Technology, pp. 167–183, St. Paul, MN: AACC.Google Scholar
  24. House, W. A., R. M. Welch, and D. R. van Campen. 1982. Effect of phytic acid on the absorption, contribution and endogenous excretion of zinc in rats. J. Nutr. 112: 941–953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Jones, J. M. 1971. Trace elements in human nutrition: The contribution cereals. Cereal Foods World 22: 573–574.Google Scholar
  26. Kasper, H., V. Rabast, H. Fassel, and F. Fehle. 1979. The effect of DF on postprandial serum vitamin A concentration in man. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 32: 1847–1849.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Keagy, P. M., B. Borenstein, P. Ranum, M. A. Connor, K. Lorenz, W. E. Hobbs, G. Hill, A. L. Bachman, W. A. Boyd, and K. Kulp. 1980. Natural levels of nutrients in commercially milled wheat flours. II. Vitamin analysis. Cereal Chem. 57: 59–65.Google Scholar
  28. Kent, N. L. 1966. Barley: Processing, nutritional attributes, technological uses. In Technology of Cereals, pp. 198–210. London: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  29. Khan, M. K., and B. O. Eggum. 1978. Effect of baking on the nutritive value of Pakistani bread. J. Sci. Food Agric. 29: 1069–1075.Google Scholar
  30. Lin, D. J., G. S. Robbins, and Y. Pomeranz. 1974. Composition and utilization of milled barley products. 4: Mineral composition. Cereal Chem. 51: 309–316.Google Scholar
  31. Linko, P., P. Colonna, and C. Mercier. 1981. HTST extrusion cooking. In Advances in Cereal Science and Technology, vol. IV, Y. Pomeranz, ed., pp. 145–235. St. Paul, MN.: AACC.Google Scholar
  32. Lintas, C., and B. L. D’Appolonia. 1973. Effect of spaghetti processing on semolina carbohydrate. Cereal Chem. 50: 563–570.Google Scholar
  33. Lockhart, H. B., and H. D. Hurt. 1986. Nutrition of oats. In Oats: Chemistry and Technology, F. H. Webster, ed., pp. 297–308, St. Paul Minn.: AACC.Google Scholar
  34. Lorenz, K. 1978. Selenium in wheats and commercial wheat flour. Cereal Chem. 55: 287–294.Google Scholar
  35. Lorenz, K., R. Loewe, D. Weadon, and W. Wolf. 1980. Natural levels of nutrients in commercially milled wheat flours. III. Mineral analysis. Cereal Chem. 57: 65–69.Google Scholar
  36. Mahoney, A. W. 1982. Mineral contents of selected cereals and baked products. Cereal Foods World 27: 147–150.Google Scholar
  37. Mariani-Costantini, A. 1988. Image and nutritional role of pasta in changing food patterns. In Durum Wheat: Chemistry and Technology, G. Fabriani and C. Lintas, eds., pp. 283–302. St. Paul, MN: AACC.Google Scholar
  38. Masironi, R., S. R. Koirtyohann, and T. O. Pierce. 1977. Zinc, copper, cadmium, and chromium in polished and unpolished rice. Sci. Total Environment 7: 27–43.Google Scholar
  39. Mertz, E. T., L. S. Bates, and O. E. Nelson. 1964. Mutant gene that changes protein composition and increases lysine content of maize endosperm. Science 145: 279–280.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Neri, V. 1986. L’alimentazione povera nell’Italia romana. In Atti del Convegno l’Alimentazione nell’antichita. Parma.Google Scholar
  41. Newberg, D. S., and J. M. Concon. 1985. Lectins in rice and corn endosperm. J. Agric. Food Chen. 33: 685–687.Google Scholar
  42. Nyman, M., M. Siljestrom, B. Pedersen, K. E. Bach Knudsen, N.-G. Asp, C.-G. Johansson, and B. O. Eggum. 1984. DF content and composition of six cereals at different extraction rates. Cereal Chem. 61: 14–19.Google Scholar
  43. O’Dell, B. L., A. R. de Boland, and S. R. Koirtyohann. 1972. Distribution of CEREAL FOODS 101 phytate and nutritionally important elements among the morphological components of cereal grains. J. Agric. Food Chem. 20 (3): 718–721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Padua, A. B., and B. O. Juliano. 1974. Effect of parboiling on thiamine, protein and fat of rice. J. Sci. Food Agric. 25: 697–701.Google Scholar
  45. Pedersen, B., and B. O. Eggum. 1983. The influence of milling on the nutritive value of flour from cereal grains. 2. Wheat. Qual. Plant. Plant Foods Human Nutrition 33: 51–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pedersen, B., E. B. Knudsen, and B. O. Eggum. 1989. Nutritive value of cereal products with emphasis on the effect of milling. In Nutritional value of cereal products, beans and starches, G. H. Bourne, ed. World Rev. Nutr. Diet. vol. 60, pp. 1–91. Basel: Karger.Google Scholar
  47. Peterson, D. M., J. Senturia, V. L. Youngs, and L. E. Schrader. 1975. Elemental composition of oat groats. J. Agric. Food Chem. 23: 9–13.Google Scholar
  48. Pomeranz, Y. 1987. Bread in health and disease. In Modern Cereal Science and Technology, pp. 350–370. St. Paul, MN: AACC.Google Scholar
  49. Pomeranz, Y. 1988. Chemical composition of kernel structure. In Wheat: Chemistry and Technology, vol. I, Y. Pomeranz, ed., pp. 97–158. St. Paul, MN: AACC.Google Scholar
  50. Ranhotra, G. S. 1985. Nutritional profile of corn and flour tortillas. Cereal Foods World 30: 703–704.Google Scholar
  51. Reddy, N. R., S. K. Sathe, and D. K. Salunkhe. 1982. Phytates in legumes and cereals. Adv. Food Res. 28: 1–92.Google Scholar
  52. Resurreccion, A. P., B. O. Juliano, and Y. Tanaka. 1979. Nutrient content and distribution in milling fractions of rice grain. J. Sci. Food Agric. 30: 475–481.Google Scholar
  53. Rooney, L. W., and S. O. Serna-Saldivar. 1987. Food uses of whole corn and dry-milled fractions. In Corn: Cereal chemistry and technology, pp. 399–429. St. Paul, MN: AACC.Google Scholar
  54. Selvendran, R. R. 1984. The plant cell wall as a source of DF: Chemistry and structure. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 39: 320–337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Theander, O. 1983. Advances in the chemical characterization and analytical determination of DF components. In Dietary Fibre, G. G. Birch and K. J. Parker, eds., pp. 77–93. London: Applied Science Publ.Google Scholar
  56. Toepfer, E. W., M. M. Polansky, J. F. Eheart, H. T. Slover, E. R. Morris, F. N. Hepburn, and F. W. Quackenbush. 1972. Nutrient composition of selected wheats and wheat products. XI Summary. Cereal Chem. 49: 173.Google Scholar
  57. Van Dokkum, W., A. Wesstra, and F. A. Schippers. 1982. Physiological effects of fiber-rich types of bread. I. The effect of DF from bread on the mineral balance of young men. Brit. J. Nutr. 47: 451–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Varo, P., R. Laine, and P. Koivistoinen. 1983. The effect of heat treatment on DF: a collaborative study. J. Assoc. Anal. Chem. 66: 933–935.Google Scholar
  59. Watson, S. A. 1987. Structure and composition. In Corn: Chemistry and Technology, pp. 53–82. St. Paul, MN: AACC.Google Scholar
  60. Weaver, C. M., P. H. Chen, and S. L. Ryneayson. 1981. Effect of milling on trace element and protein content of barley and oats. Cereal Chem. 58: 120–124.Google Scholar
  61. Young, V. R., and P. L. Pellett. 1985. Wheat proteins in relation to protein requirements and availability of aminoacids. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 41: 1077–1090.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Van Nostrand Reinhold 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claudia Lintas
  • Aldo Mariani-Costantini

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations