Subclass Placodermi

  • J. A. Moy-Thomas


Middle Devonian Lower Devonian Median Dorsal Ventral Plate Dermal Bone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bystrow, A. P. (1957) The microstructure of dermal bones in arthrodires. Acta zool., Stockh., 38, 239–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Denison, R. H. (1941) The soft anatomy of Bothriolepis. J. Paleont., 15, 553–61.Google Scholar
  3. Denison, R. H. (1950) A new arthrodire from the New York State Devonian. Am. J. Sci., 248, 565–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Denison, R. H. (1958) Early Devonian fishes from Utah. 3. Arthrodira. Fieldiana, Geol., 11, 459–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Denison, R. H. (1960) Fishes of the Devonian Holland Quarry Shale of Ohio. Fieldiana, Geol., 11, 555–613.Google Scholar
  6. Denison, R. H. (1962) A reconstruction of the shield of the arthrodire Bryantolepis brachycephalus (Bryant). Fieldiana, Geol., 14, 99–104.Google Scholar
  7. Dunkle, D. H. and Bungart, P. A. (1942) The infero-gnathal plates of Titanichthys. Scient. pubis Cleveland Mus. nat. Hist., 8, 49–59.Google Scholar
  8. Dunkle, D. H. and Bungart, P. A. (1943) Comments on Diplognathus mirabilis Newberry. Scient. pubis Cleveland Mus. nat. Hist., 8, 73–84.Google Scholar
  9. Dunkle, D. H. and Bungart, P. A. (1946) The antero-supragnathal of Gorgonichthys. Amer. Mus. Nov., 1316, 1–10.Google Scholar
  10. Eastman, C. R. (1898) Dentition of Devonian Ptyctodontidae. Amer. Naturalist, 32, 473–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Forster-Cooper, C. (1934) A note on the body scaling of Pterichthyodes. Palaeobiologica, 6, 25–30.Google Scholar
  12. Gross, W. (1931) Asterolepis ornata Eichw. und das Antiarch—Problem. Palaeontographica, 75, 1–62.Google Scholar
  13. Gross, W. (1932) Die Arthrodira Wildungens. Geol. Palaont. Abh., 19, 1–61.Google Scholar
  14. Gross, W. (1933) Die Wirbeltiere des rheinishen Devons. Abh. Preuss. Geol. Landesanst., 154, 1–83.Google Scholar
  15. Gross, W. (1935) Histologische Studien aus Aussenskelett fossiler Agnathen und Fische. Palaeontographica, 83A, 1–60.Google Scholar
  16. Gross, W. (1941a) Die Bothriolepis-arten der Cellulosa-Mergel Lettlands. K. Svenska VetenskAkad. Handl., (3) 19, 1–79.Google Scholar
  17. Gross, W. (194lb) Neue Beobachtungen an Gerdalepis rhenana (Beyr.). Palaeontographica, 93A, 193–214.Google Scholar
  18. Gross, W. (1957) Mundzähne und Hautzähne der Acanthodier und Arthrodiren. Palaeontographica, 109A, 1–40.Google Scholar
  19. Gross, W. (1958) Über die älteste Arthrodiren—Gattung. Notizbi. Hess. Landesamt. Bodenforsch. Wiesbaden, 86, 7–30.Google Scholar
  20. Gross, W. (1959) Arthrodiren aus dem Obersilur der Prager Mulde. Palaeontographica, 113A, 1–35.Google Scholar
  21. Gross, W. (1960) Tityosteus n.gen., ein Riesenarthrodire aus dem rheinischen Unterdevon. Paläont. Z, 34, 263–74.Google Scholar
  22. Gross, W. (1961) Lunaspis broilii und Lunaspis heroldi aus dem Hunsrückschiefer (Unterdevon, Rheinland). Notizbi. Hess. Landesamt. Bodenforsch. Wiesbaden, 89, 17–43.Google Scholar
  23. Gross, W. (1962a) Neuuntersuchung der Stensiöellida (Arthrodira, Unterdevon). Notizbi. Hess. Landesamt. Bedenforsch. Wiesbaden, 90, 48–86.Google Scholar
  24. Gross, W. (1962b) Neuuntersuchung der Dolichothoraci aus dem Unterdevon von Overath bei Köln. Paläont. Z, H. Schmidt-Festband, 45–63.Google Scholar
  25. Gross, W. (1963) Gemuendina stuertzi Traquair, Neuuntersuchung. Notizbi. Hess. Landesamt. Bodenforsch. Wiesbaden, 91, 36–73.Google Scholar
  26. Gross, W. (1965a) Über die Placodermen-Gattung Asterolepis und Tiaraspis aus dem Devon Belgiens und einen fraglichen Tiaraspis—Rest aus dem Devon Spitzbergens. Bull Inst. r. Sci. nat. Belg, 41, 1–19.Google Scholar
  27. Gross, W. (1965b) Über einer neuen Schadelrest von Stensioella heintzi und schuppen von Machaeracanthus sp. indet. aus dem Hunsrückschiefer. Notizbi. hess. Landesamt. Bodenforsch. Wiesbaden, 93, 7–18.Google Scholar
  28. Gross, W. (1967) Über das Gebiss der Acanthodier und Placodermen. J. Linn. Soc. (Zool.), 47, 121–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Heintz, A. (1929) Die downtonischen und devonischen Vertebraten von Spitzbergen. 2. Acanthaspida. Skr. Svalbard Ishavet, 22, 1–81.Google Scholar
  30. Heintz, A. (1930) Eine neue Rekonstruction von Heterostius ASM. Protok. Obshch. Estest, Yurev, 36, 1–7.Google Scholar
  31. Heintz, A. (1932a) The structure of Dinichthys. A contribution to our knowledge of the Arthrodira Am. Mus. nat. Hist, Bashford Dean Mem. Vol, 4, 115–224.Google Scholar
  32. Heintz, A. (1932b) Untersuchungen über den Bau des Arthrodira. Acta zool, Stockh, 12, 225–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Heintz, A. (1933) Some remarks about the structure of Phlyctaenaspis acadica Whiteaves. Norsk geol. Tidsskr, 14, 127–44.Google Scholar
  34. Heintz, A. (1934) Revision of the Estonian Arthrodira Pt.1. Family Homostiidae, Jaekel. Arch. Naturk. Eestis, 10, 177–290.Google Scholar
  35. Heintz, A. (1962) New investigation on the structure of Arctolepis from the Devonian of Spitsbergen. Norsk Polarinst Arb, (1961) 23–40.Google Scholar
  36. Heintz, A. (1968) The spinal plate in Homostius and Dunkleosteus. Nobel Symposium, 4, 145–151.Google Scholar
  37. Holmgren, N. (1942) Studies on the head of fishes. Pt. 3. The phylogeny of elasmobranch fishes. Acta zool. Stockh, 23, 129–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hussakof, L. and Bryant, W. L. (1918) Catalog of the fossil fishes in the museum of the Buffalo society of natural sciences. Bull. Buffalo Soc. nat. Sci, 12, 1–198.Google Scholar
  39. Jarvik, E. (1959) Dermal fin-rays and Holmgrens principle of delamination. K. svenska VetenskAkad. Handl, (4) 6, 1–51.Google Scholar
  40. Jarvik, E. (1964) Specializations in early vertebrates. Annls Soc. r. zool Belg, 94, 11–95.Google Scholar
  41. Jarvik, E. (1968) Aspects of vertebrate phylogeny. Nobel Symposium, 4, 497–527.Google Scholar
  42. Karatajute-Talimaa, V. (1960) Byssacanthus dilatatus (Eichw) from the Middle Devonian of the U.S.S.R.. Colnea Acta Geol. Lithuanica, (1960) 293–305.Google Scholar
  43. Karatajute-Talimaa, V. (1963) Genus Asterolepis from the Devonian of the Russian Platform, in The data of the geology of the Lithuania, ed. Grigelis, A. and Karatajute-Talimaa, V. ( In Russian with English summary. ) p. 65.Google Scholar
  44. Lehman, J. P. (1956) Les arthrodires du Dévonien Supérieur du Tafilalet (Sud marocain). Notes Mém. Serv. Mines Carte Géol. Maroc, 129, 1–70.Google Scholar
  45. Lehman, J. P. (1962) A propos de la double articulation de la cuirasse des arthrodires. Colloques int. Cent. natn. Rech. Scient, 104, 63–67.Google Scholar
  46. Liu, T. S. and Pan, K. (1958) Devonian fishes from Wutung series near Nanking, China. Pal. Sinica, 15 (n.s.C), 1–41. (In Chinese and English.)Google Scholar
  47. Liu, T.-H. (1963) On the Antiarchi from Chutsing. Vertebr. Palasiat, 7, 80–85. (In Chinese and English.)Google Scholar
  48. Mark, E. J. (1953) Genus Holonema from the Middle Devonian of Estonian S.S.R. Loodusuurjate Seltsi Juubelekoguteos (1853–1953), Tallinn (1953), 382–96. (In Russian.)Google Scholar
  49. Mark, E. J. (1963) On the spinal plate of the Middle Devonian arthrodire Homo-stius. Geoloogia-Inst. Uurim, 13, 189–99. (In Russian with English summary.)Google Scholar
  50. Mark-Kurik, E. J. (1969) Distribution of vertebrates in the Silurian of Estonia. Lethaia, 2, 145–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Miles, R. S. (1962) Gemuendenaspis n. gen., an arthrodiran fish from the Lower Devonian Hunsrückschiefer of Germany. Trans. R. Soc. Edinb, 65, 59–77.Google Scholar
  52. Miles, R. S. (1964) On some coccosteomorph arthrodires from the Devonian of Arizona. Ark. Zool, (2) 16, 427–60.Google Scholar
  53. Miles, R. S. (1964) A large arthrodire plate from Chautauqua County, New York. Ark. Zoo, (2) 16, 545–50.Google Scholar
  54. Miles, R. S. (1965) Ventral thoracic neuromast lines of placoderm fishes. Nature Lond, 206, 524–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Miles, R. S. (1966a) The placoderm fish Rhachiosteus pterygiatus Gross and its relationships. Trans. R. Soc. Edinb, 66, 377–92.Google Scholar
  56. Miles, R. S. (1966b) Protitanichthys and some other coccosteomorph arthrodires from the Devonian of North America. K. svenska VetenskAkad. Handl,(4) 10 1–49.Google Scholar
  57. Miles, R. S. (1967a) Observations on the ptyctodont fish, Rhamphodopsis Watson. J. Linn. Soc. (Zool.), 47, 99–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Miles, R. S. (1967b) The cervical joint and some aspects of the origin of the Placodermi. Colloques int. Cent. natn. Rech. scient, 163, 49–71.Google Scholar
  59. Miles, R. S. (1967c) Class Placodermi, in The fossi! record, ed. Harland, W. B. et al. ( Geol. Soc., London. ) p. 640.Google Scholar
  60. Miles, R. S. (1968) The Old Red Sandstone antiarchs of Scotland: Family Bothriolepididae. Palaeont. Soc. (Monogr.), (no. 552) 122, 1–130.Google Scholar
  61. Miles, R. S. (1969) Features of placoderm diversification and the evolution of the arthrodire feeding mechanism. Trans. R. Soc. Edinb, 68, 123–70.Google Scholar
  62. Miles, R. S. and Westoll, T. S. (1963) Two new genera of coccosteid Arthrodira from the Middle Old Red Sandstone of Scotland, and their stratigraphical distribution. Trans. R. Soc. Edinb, 65, 179–210.Google Scholar
  63. Miles, R. S. and Westoll, T. S. (1968) The placoderm fish Coccosteus cuspidatus Miller ex Agassiz from the Middle Old Red Sandstone of Scotland. Pt. 1. Descriptive morphology. Trans. R. Soc. Edinb, 67, 373–476.Google Scholar
  64. Myers, G. S. (1942) The “lungs of Bothriolepis”. Stanford Ichthyol Bull, 2, 13436.Google Scholar
  65. Obruchev, D. V. (1967) Class Placodermi, in Fundamentals of Paleontology. 11. Agnatha, Pisces, ed. Obruchev, D. V. ( Israel program for scientific translations, Jerusalem ) p. 168.Google Scholar
  66. Obrucheva, O. P. (1962)Armouredfishes of theDevonian of the U.S.S.R. (Coccosteidae and Dinichthyidae) (Moscow, in Russian.)Google Scholar
  67. Orvig, T. (1957) Notes on some Palaeozoic vertebrates from Spitsbergen and North America. Norsk geol. Tidsskr, 37, 285–352.Google Scholar
  68. Orvig, T. (1960) New finds of acanthodians, arthrodires, crossopterygians, ganoids and dipnoans in the Upper Middle Devonian Calcareous Flags (Oberer Plattenkalk) of the Bergisch Gladback-Paffrath Trough. Pt. 1. Palaont. Z, 34, 295–335.Google Scholar
  69. Orvig, T. (1962) Y a-t-il une relation directe entre les arthrodires ptyctodontides et les holocephales?. Colloques int. Cent. natn. Rech. scient, 104, 49–61.Google Scholar
  70. Orvig, T. (1967) Phylogeny of tooth tissues: evolution of some calcified tissues in early vertebrates, in Structural and chemical organization of teeth, ed. Miles, A. E. W. ( Academic Press, New York and London ).Google Scholar
  71. Orvig, T. (1969) A new brachythoracid arthrodire from the Devonian of Dickson Land, Vestspitsbergen. Lethaia, 2, 261–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pageau, Y. (1969) Nouvelle faune ichthyologique du Devonién Moyen dans les Grès de Gaspé (Quebec). 2. Morphologie et systematique. Naturaliste can, 96, 399–478.Google Scholar
  73. Ritchie, A. (1969) Ancient fish of Australia. Australian Nat. Hist, (September 1969 ) 218–23.Google Scholar
  74. Robertson, G. M. (1970) The oral region of ostracoderms and placoderms: possible phylogenetic significance. Am. J. Sci, 269, 39–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Skeels, M. A. (1962) Two new fishes from the Middle Devonian Silica formation, Lucas County, Ohio. J. Paleont, 36, 1039–46.Google Scholar
  76. Stensiö, E. A. (1925) On the head of the macropetalichthyids with certain remarks on the head of the other arthrodires. Pubis Field. Mus. nat. Hist. (Geol.), 4, 87–197.Google Scholar
  77. Stensiö, E. A. (1931) Upper Devonian vertebrates from East Greenland, collected by the Danish Greenland expedition in 1929 and 1930. Medd. Grbnland, 96, 1–212.Google Scholar
  78. Stensiö, E. A. (1934a) On the Placodermi of the Upper Devonian of East Greenland. I. Phyllolepida and Arthrodira. Medd. Grbnland, 97, 1–58.Google Scholar
  79. Stensiö, E. A. (1934b) On the heads of certain arthrodires. I. Pholidosteus, Leiosteus and acanthaspids. K. svenska VetenskAkad. Handl, (3) 13, 1–79.Google Scholar
  80. Stensiö, E. A. (1936) On the Placodermi of the Upper Devonian of East Greenland. Supplement to part I. Medd. Grbnland, 97, 1–52.Google Scholar
  81. Stensiö, E. A. (1939) On the Placodermi of the Upper Devonian of East Greenland. 2nd Supplement to part 1. Medd. Grbnland, 97, 1–33.Google Scholar
  82. Stensiö, E. A. (1942) On the snout of arthrodires. K. svenska VetenskAkad. Handl, (3) 20, 1–32.Google Scholar
  83. Stensiö, E. A. (1944) Contributions to the knowledge of the vertebrate fauna of the Silurian and Devonian of western Podolia. 2. Notes on two Arthrodires from the Dowtonian of Podolia. Ark. Zool, 35 A, 1–83.Google Scholar
  84. Stensiö, E. A. (1945) On the heads of certain arthrodires. 2. On the cranium and cervical joint of the Dolichothoraci. K. svenska VetenskAkad. Handl, (3) 22, 1–70.Google Scholar
  85. Stensiö, E. A. (1947) The sensory lines and dermal bones of the cheek in fishes and amphibians. K. svenska VetenskAkad. Handl, (3) 24, 1–195.Google Scholar
  86. Stensiö, E. A. (1948) On the Placodermi of the Upper Devonian of East Greenland. 2. Antiarchi: subfamily Bothriolepinae. With an attempt at a revision of the previously described species of that family. Palaeozool. Groenland 2, 1–622.Google Scholar
  87. Stensiö, E. A. (1950) La cavité labyrinthique, lossification sclérotique et lorbite de Jagorina. Colloques int. Cent. natn. Rech. scient, 21, 9–41.Google Scholar
  88. Stensiö, E. A. (1959) On the pectoral fin and shoulder girdle of the arthrodires. K. svenska VetenskAkad. Handl, (4) 8, 1–229.Google Scholar
  89. Stensiö, E. A. (1963a) Anatomical studies on the arthrodiran head. Pt. 1. Preface, geological and geographical distribution, the organization of the arthrodires, the anatomy of the head in the Dolichothoraci, Coccosteomorphi and Pachyosteomorphi. K. svenska VetenskAkad. Handl, (4) 9, 1–419.Google Scholar
  90. Stensiö, E. A. (1963b) The brain and cranial nerves in fossil, lower craniate vertebrates. Skr. norske VidenskAkad. Oslo, Mat.-naturv. Kl. (1963) 1–120.Google Scholar
  91. Stensiö, E. A. (1969a) Elasmobranchiomorphi Placodermata Arthrodires, in Traité de Paléontologie, 4:2, ed. Piveteau J. ( Masson, Paris ) p. 71.Google Scholar
  92. Stensiö, E. A. (1969b) Anatomie des arthrodires dans leur cadre systematique. Annls Paléont, 55, 151–92.Google Scholar
  93. Stensiö, E. A. and Säve-Söderbergh, G. (1938) Middle Devonian vertebrates from Canning Land and Wegener Peninsula (East Greenland). Pt. 1. Placodermi, Ichthyodorulithes. Medd. Grònland, 96, 1–38.Google Scholar
  94. Stevens, M. S. (=Skeels, M. A.) (1964) Thoracic armour of a new arthrodire (Holonema) from the Devonian of Presque Isle County, Michigan. Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci, 49, 163–75.Google Scholar
  95. Traquair, R. H. (1894–1914) A monograph of the fishes of the Old Red Sandstone of Britain. Pt. 2. The Asterolepidae. Palaeontogr. Soc. (Monogr.), 6: 31–34.Google Scholar
  96. Van Valen, L. (1963) The head shield of Macropetalichthys (Arthrodira). J. Paleont, 37, 257–63.Google Scholar
  97. Watson, D. M. S. (1934) The interpretation of arthrodires, Proc. zool. Soc. Lond, (1934) 437–64.Google Scholar
  98. Watson, D. M. S. (1938) On Rhamphodopsis, a ptyctodont from the Middle Old Red Sandstone of Scotland. Trans. R. Soc. Edinb, 59, 397–410.Google Scholar
  99. Watson, D. M. S. (1961) Some additions to our knowledge of Antiarchi. Palaeontology, 4, 210–20.Google Scholar
  100. Westoll, T. S. (1945) The paired fins of placoderms. Trans. R. Soc. Edinb, 61, 381–98.Google Scholar
  101. Westoll, T. S. (1958) The lateral fin-fold theory and the pectoral fins of ostracoderms and early fish, in Studies of fossil vertebrates, ed. Westoll, T. S. ( The Athlone Press, London ).Google Scholar
  102. Westoll, T. S. (1962) Ptyctodont fishes and the ancestry of the Holocephali. Nature, Lond, 194, 949–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Westoll, T. S. (1963) The hyomandibular problem in placoderm fishes. Contrd. pap. 16th Int. Congr. Zool, 1, 176.Google Scholar
  104. Westoll, T. S. (1967) Radotina and other tesserate fishes. J. Linn. Soc. (Zool.), 47, 83–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Westoll, T. S. and Miles, R. S. (1963) On an arctolepid fish from Gemünden. Trans. R. Soc. Edinb, 65, 139–53.Google Scholar
  106. White, E. I. (1952) Australian arthrodires. Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist, (Geol.), 1, 249–304.Google Scholar
  107. White, E. I. (1961) The Old Red Sandstone of Brown Clee Hill and the adjacent area. II. Palaeontology. Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist, (Geol.), 5, 243–310.Google Scholar
  108. White, E. I. (1968) Devonian fishes of the Mawson-Mutlock area, Victoria LandGoogle Scholar
  109. Antartica. Scient. Rep. transantarct. Exped,16, 1–26.Google Scholar
  110. White, E. I. (1969) The deepest vertebrate fossil and other arctolepid fishes. Biol. J. Linn. Soc, 1, 293–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© J. Moy-Thomas and R. S. Miles 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. A. Moy-Thomas

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations