Sources of Microorganisms

  • George J. Banwart


The microbial flora of a food consists of the microorganisms associated with the raw material, those acquired during handling and processing, and those surviving any preservation treatment and storage.


Microbial Contamination Horseshoe Crab Microbial Flora Microbial Load Foodborne Illness 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams, B. G., and Marrie, T. J. 1982. Hand carriage of aerobic Gram-negative rods by health care personnel. J. Hyg. Camb. 89: 23–31.Google Scholar
  2. Andreis, H. J. 1980. Viability of sugarcane smut spores in a Florida organic soil at three moisture levels. Sugar J. 45 (5): 21–22.Google Scholar
  3. Austin, B. 1982. Taxonomy of bacteria isolated from a coastal, marine fish-rearing unit. J. Appi. Bacteriol. 53: 253–268.Google Scholar
  4. Barbeito, M. S.; Mathews, C. T.; and Taylor, L. A. 1967. Microbiological laboratory hazard of bearded men. Appi. Microbiol. 15: 899–906.Google Scholar
  5. Baribo, L. E.; Avens, J. S.; and O’Neill, R. D. 1966. Effect of electrostatic charge on the contamination of plastic food containers by airborne bacterial spores. Appi. Microbiol. 14: 905–913.Google Scholar
  6. Bausum, H. T.; Schaub, S. A.; Kenyon, K. F.; and Small, M. J. 1982. Comparison of coliphage and bacterial aerosols at a wastewater spray irrigation site. Appi. Environ. Microbiol. 43: 28–38.Google Scholar
  7. Bell, R. G.; Wilson, D. B.; and Dew, E. J. 1976. Feedlot manure top dressing for irrigated pasture: Good agriculture practice or a health hazard? Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 16: 536–540.Google Scholar
  8. Benbough, J. E.; Hambleton, P.; Martin, K. L.; and Strange, R. E. 1972. Effect of aerosolization on the transport of a-methyl glucoside and galactosides into Escherichia coli. J. Gen. Microbiol. 72: 511–520.Google Scholar
  9. Bovallius, A.; Bucht, B.; Roffey, R.; and Ands, P. 1978. Long-range air transmisson of bacteria. Appi. Environ. Microbiol. 35: 1231–1232.Google Scholar
  10. Brandin, E. R., and Pistole, T. G. 1985. Presence of microorganisms in hemolymph of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus. Appi. Environ. Microbiol. 49: 718–720.Google Scholar
  11. Brown, J., and Neuman, M. A. 1979. Lesions of swine lymph nodes as a diagnostic test to determine mycobacterial infection. Appi. Environ. Microbiol. 37: 740–743.Google Scholar
  12. Carr, D. L., and Kloos, W. E. 1977. Temporal study of the staphylococci and micrococci of normal infant skin. Appi. Environ. Microbiol. 34: 673–680.Google Scholar
  13. Casida, L. E., Jr. 1980. Bacterial predators of Micrococcus luteus in soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 39: 1035–1041.Google Scholar
  14. Casida, L. E., Jr. 1983. Interaction of Agromyces ramosus with other bacteria in soil. Appi. Environ. Microbiol. 46: 881–888.Google Scholar
  15. CDC. 1983. Water-related Disease Outbreaks. Annual Summary. 1982. Atlanta, Ga.: Centers for Disease Control.Google Scholar
  16. Chen, H., and Chai, T. 1982. Microflora of drainage from ice in fishing vessel fishholds. Appi. Environ. Microbiol. 43: 1360–1365.Google Scholar
  17. Christensen, M.; Raper, K. B.; and States, J. S. 1978. Two new Aspergillus nidulans group members from Wyoming soils. Mycologia 70: 332–342.Google Scholar
  18. Clark, S.; Rylander, R.; and Larsson, L. 1983. Airborne bacteria, endotoxin and fungi in dust in poultry and swine confinement buildings. Amer. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 44: 537–541.Google Scholar
  19. Coleman, R. N.; Campbell, J. N.; Cook, F. D.; and Westlake, D. W. S. 1974. Urbanization and microbial content of the North Saskatchewan River. Appl. Microbiol. 27: 93–101.Google Scholar
  20. Conn, H. O., and Floch, M. H. 1970. Effects of lactulose and Lactobacillus acidophilus on the fecal flora. Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 23: 1588–1594.Google Scholar
  21. Coudriet, D. L.; Kishaba, A. N.; and Carroll, J. E. 1979. Transmission of muskmelon necrotic spot virus in muskmelons by cucumber beetles./ Earn. Entomol. 72: 560–561.Google Scholar
  22. Dempster, J. F. 1973. A note on the hygiene of meat mincing machines. J. Hyg. Camb. 71: 739–744.Google Scholar
  23. Denny, C. B. 1972. Collaborative study of a method for the determination of commercial sterility of low-acid canned foods. J. Assoc. Offu. Anal. Chem. 55: 613–616.Google Scholar
  24. Denton, J. H., and Gardner, F. A. Effect of further processing systems on selected microbiological attributes of turkey meat products. J. Food Sci. 47: 214–217.Google Scholar
  25. DeWit, J. C., and Kampelmacher, E. H. 1982. Microbiological aspects of washing hands in slaughter-houses. Zbl. Bakt. Hyg., I. Abt. Orig. B. 176: 553–561.Google Scholar
  26. Dimmick, R. L.; Wolochow, H.; and Chatigny, M. A. 1979. Evidence for more than one division of bacteria within airborne particles. Appi. Environ. Microbiol. 38: 642–643.Google Scholar
  27. Driessen, F. M.; DeVries, J., and Kingma, F. 1984. Adhesion and growth of thermoresistant streptococci on stainless steel during heat treatment of milk. J. Food Prot. 47: 848–852.Google Scholar
  28. Ellender, R. D.; Mapp, J. B.; Middlebrooks, B. L.; Cook, D. W.; and Cake, E. W. 1980. Natural enterovirus and fecal coliform contamination of Gulf Coast oysters. J. Food Prot. 43: 105–110.Google Scholar
  29. Ercolani, G. L. 1978. Pseudomonas savastanoi and other bacteria colonizing the surface of olive leaves in the field. J Gen. Microbiol. 109: 245–257.Google Scholar
  30. Eskin, N. A. M; Henderson, H. M.; and Townsend, R. J. 1971. Biochemistry of Foods. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  31. Farrah, S. R., and Bitton, G. 1984. Enteric bacteria in aerobically digested sludge. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 47: 831–834.Google Scholar
  32. Finegold, S. M.; Sutter,V. L.; Sugihara,P. T.; Elder, H. A.; Lehmann, S. M.; and Phillips, R. L. 1977. Fecal microbial flora in Seventh Day Adventist populations and control subjects. Amer.]. Clin. Nutr. 30: 1781–1792.Google Scholar
  33. Flannigan, B., and Hui, S. C. 1976. The occurrence of aflatoxin-producing strains of Aspergillus flavus in the mould floras of ground spices. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 41: 411–418.Google Scholar
  34. Gerba, C. P.; Wallis, C.; and Melnick, J. L. 1975. Microbiological hazards of household toilets: Droplet production and the fate of residual organisms. Appi. Microbiol. 30: 229–237.Google Scholar
  35. Gilbert, R. J., and Maurer, I. M. 1968. The hygiene of slicing machines, carving knives and can-openers. J. Hyg. Camb. 66: 439–450.Google Scholar
  36. Goel, M. C.; Gaddi, B. L.; Marth, E. H.; Stuiber, D. A.; Lund, D. B.; Linday, R. C.; and Brickbauer, E. 1970. Microbiology of raw and processed wild rice. J Milk Food Technol. 33: 571–574.Google Scholar
  37. Goodrich, T. D.; Stuart, D. G.; Bissonnette, G. K.; and Walter, W. G. 1970. A bacteriological study of the waters of Bozeman Creek’s south fork drainage. Proc. Mont. Acad. Sci. 30: 59–65.Google Scholar
  38. Goyal, S. M.; Keswick, B. H.; and Gerba, C. P. 1984. Viruses in groundwater beneath sewage irrigated cropland. Water Res. 18: 299–302.Google Scholar
  39. Gracey, M. 1979. The contaminated small bowel syndrome: Pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. Amer. J Clin. Nutr. 32: 234–243.Google Scholar
  40. Graves, R. R.; Rogers, R. F.; Lyons, A. J., Jr., and Hesseltine, C. W. 1967. Bacterial and actinomycete flora of Kansas-Nebraska and Pacific Northwest wheat and wheat flour. Cereal Chem. 44: 288–299.Google Scholar
  41. Griffin, G. J., and Garren, K. H. 1976. Colonization of rye green manure and peanut fruit debris by Aspergillus ffavus and Aspergillus niger group in field soils. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 32: 28–32.Google Scholar
  42. Haenel, H. 1970. Human normal and abnormal gastrointestinal flora. Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 23: 1433–1439.Google Scholar
  43. Heldman, D. R. 1974. Factors influencing air-borne contamination of foods. A review./ Food Sci. 39: 962–969.Google Scholar
  44. Hemelt, D. M.; Mares, B.; and Upadhyay, J. M. 1979. Specificity of bacteriolytic enzyme II from a soil amoeba, Hartmannella glebae. Appt. Environ. Microbiol. 38: 373–378.Google Scholar
  45. Hentges, D.J. 1980. Does diet influence human fecal microflora composition? Nutr. Rev. 38: 329–336.Google Scholar
  46. Hibbitt, K. G.; Benians, M.; and Rowlands, G.J. 1972. The number and percentage viability of commensal microorganisms recovered from the teat canal of the cow. Brit. Vet. J. 128: 270–274.Google Scholar
  47. Hildebrand, D. C.; Alosi, M. C.; and Schroth, M. N. 1980. Physical entrapment of pseudo-monads in bean leaves by films formed at air-water interfaces. Phytopathology 70: 98109.Google Scholar
  48. Hill, R. A.; Wilson, D. M.; Burg, W. R.; and Shotwell, O. L. 1984. Viable fungi in corn dust. Appt. Environ. Microbiol. 47: 84–87.Google Scholar
  49. Holdeman, L. V., and Moore, W. E. C. 1972. Roll-tube techniques for anaerobic bacteria. Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 25: 1314–1317.Google Scholar
  50. Horsley, R. W. 1973. The bacterial flora of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in relation to its environment. J. Appi. Bacteriol. 36: 377–386.Google Scholar
  51. Humphrey, T. J.; Lanning, D. G.; and Beresford, D. 1981. The effect of pH adjustment on the microbiology of chicken scald-tank water with particular reference to the death rate of salmonellas. J. Appi. Bacteriol. 51: 517–527.Google Scholar
  52. Huss, H. H. 1980. Distribution of Clostridium botulinum. Appi. Environ. Microbiol. 39: 764–769.Google Scholar
  53. Jones, P. W. 1976. The effect of temperature, solids content and pH on the survival of salmonellas in cattle slurry. Brit. Vet. J. 132: 284–293.Google Scholar
  54. Julseth, R. M., and Deibel, R. H. 1974. Microbial profile of selected spices and herbs at import./ Milk Food Technol. 37: 414–419.Google Scholar
  55. Kapperud, G. 1975. Yersinia enterocolitica in small rodents from Norway, Sweden and Finland. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. B., 83: 335–342.Google Scholar
  56. Kleeman, E. G., and Klaenhammer, T. R. 1982. Adherence of Lactobacillus species to human fetal intestinal cells. J. Dairy Sci. 65: 2063–2069.Google Scholar
  57. Kominos, S. D.; Copeland, C. E.; Grosiak, B.; and Postic, B. 1972. Introduction of Pseudo/nor/as aeruginosa into a hospital via vegetables. Appi. Microbiol. 24: 567–570.Google Scholar
  58. Korab, H. E. 1963. Microbiological aspects of one-trip glass bottles as used by the carbonated beverage industry. Food Technol. 17: 108–109.Google Scholar
  59. Lacey, J. 1973. Actinomycete and fungus spores in farm air./ Agr. Labour. Sci. 1: 61–78.Google Scholar
  60. Langeland, G. 1982. Salmonella spp. in the working environment of sewage treatment plants in Oslo, Norway. Appi. Environ. Microbiol. 43: 1111–1115.Google Scholar
  61. Larkin, E. P., and Hunt, D. A. 1982. Bivalve mollusks: Control of microbiological contaminants. BioScience 32: 193–197.Google Scholar
  62. Larkin, E. P.; Tierney, J. T.; Lovett, J.; Van Donsel, D.; Francis, D. W.; and Jackson, G. J. 1978. Land application of sewage wastes; Potential for contamination of foodstuffs and agricultural soils by viruses, bacterial pathogens and parasites. State of Knowledge in Land Treatment of Wastewater 2: 215–223.Google Scholar
  63. Leben, C. 1976. Soybean flower-to-seed movement of epiphytic bacteria. Can. J. Microbiol. 22: 429–431.Google Scholar
  64. Leben, C., and Whitmoyer, R. E. 1979. Adherence of bacteria to leaves. Can. J. Microbiol. 25: 896–901.Google Scholar
  65. Lenhart, S. W.; Olenchock, S. A.; and Cole, E. C. 1982. Viable sampling for airborne bacteria in a poultry processing plant./ Toxicol. Environ. Health 10: 613–619.Google Scholar
  66. Lindemann, J.; Constantinidou, H. A.; Barchet, W. R.; and Upper, C. D. 1982. Plants as sources of airborne bacteria, including ice nucleation-active bacteria. Appi. Environ. Microbiol. 44: 1059–1063.Google Scholar
  67. Lynch, J. M. 1982. Limits to microbial growth in soil. J. Gen Microbiol. 128: 405–410. Mackenzie, E. 1973. Thermoduric and psychrotrophic organisms on poorly cleansed milking plants and farm bulk milk tanks. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 36: 457–463.Google Scholar
  68. McKenzie, F., and Taylor, G. S. 1983. Fusarium populations in British soils relative to different cropping practices. Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 80: 409–413.Google Scholar
  69. MacKenzie, M. A., and Bains, B. S. 1976. Dissemination of Salmonella serotypes from raw feed ingredients to chicken carcasses. Poultry Sci. 55: 957–960.Google Scholar
  70. McKinnon, C. H.; Cousins, C. M.; and Fulford, R. J. 1973. An in-line milk sampler for determining the numbers of bacteria derived from teat surfaces and udder infections of cows milked in recorder machines. J. Dairy Res. 40: 47–52.Google Scholar
  71. McMeekin, T. A., and Thomas, C. J. 1979. Aspects of the microbial ecology of poultry processing and storage: A review. Food Technol. Aust. 31: 35–43.Google Scholar
  72. Maxcy, R. B., and Arnold, R. G. 1972. Microbiological quality of breaded onion rings. J. Milk Food Technol. 35: 63–66.Google Scholar
  73. Mendes, M. F., and Lynch, D. J. 1976. A bacteriological survey of washrooms and toilets. J. Hyg. Camb. 76: 183–190.Google Scholar
  74. Meneley, J. C., and Stanghellini, M. E. 1974. Detection of enteric bacteria within locular tissue of healthy cucumbers. J. Food Sci. 39: 1267–1268.Google Scholar
  75. Metcalf, T. G.; Eckerson, D.; Moulton, E.; and Larkin, E. P. 1980. Uptake and depletion of particulate-associated polioviruses by the soft shell clam. J. Food Prot. 43: 87–88.Google Scholar
  76. Michels, M. J. M., and Visser, F. M. W. 1976. Occurrence and themoresistance of spores of psychrophilic and psychrotrophic aerobic sporeformers in soil and foods. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 41: 1–11.Google Scholar
  77. Mitsuoka, T., and Kaneuchi, C. 1977. Ecology of the bifidobacteria. Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 30: 1799–1810.Google Scholar
  78. Mol, J. H. H.; Hietbrink, J. E. A.; Mollen, H. W. M; and Van Tinteren, J. 1971. Observations on the microflora of vacuum packed sliced cooked meat products. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 34: 377–397.Google Scholar
  79. Nabbut, N. H.; Barbour, E. K.; and Al-Nakhli, H. M. 1982. Salmonella species and serotypes isolated from farm animals, animal feed, sewage, and sludge in Saudi Arabia. Bull. World Health Org. 60: 803–807.Google Scholar
  80. Notermans, S.; Firstenberg-Eden, R.; and Van Schothorst, M. 1979. Attachment of bacteria to teats of cows. J. Food Prot. 42: 228–232.Google Scholar
  81. Ogunlana, E. O. 1975. Fungal air spora at Ibadan, Nigeria. Appi. Microbiol. 29: 458–463. Paul, D., and Hoskins, L. C. 1972. Effect of oral lactobacillus feedings on fecal lactobacillus counts. Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 25: 763–765.Google Scholar
  82. Pereira, M. R., and Benjaminson, M. A. 1975. Broadcast of microbial aerosols by stacks of sewage treatment plants and effects of ozonation on bacteria in the gaseous effluent. Public Health Rep. 90: 208–212.Google Scholar
  83. Perkins, E O.; Haven, D. S.; Morales-Alamo, R.; and Rhodes, M. W. 1980. Uptake and elimination of bacteria in shellfish. J. Food Prot. 43: 124–126.Google Scholar
  84. Rey, C. R.; Halaby, G. A.; Lovgren, E. V.; and Wright, T. A. 1982. Evaluation of a membrane filter test kit for monitoring bacterial counts in cannery cooling waters. J Food Prot. 45: 1087–1090.Google Scholar
  85. Robertson, M. D.; Wilcox, G. E.; and Kibenge, F. S. B. 1984. Prevalence of reoviruses in commercial chickens. Aust. Vet. J. 61: 319–321.Google Scholar
  86. Rosas, I.; Baez, A.; and Coutino, M. 1984. Bacteriological quality of crops irrigated with wastewater in the Xochimilco plots, Mexico City, Mexico. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 47: 1074–1079.Google Scholar
  87. St. John, W. D., and.Matches, J. R. 1982. Survival and movement of Clostridium perfringens in sewage-treated soil./ Assoc. Offic. Anal. Chem. 65: 1514–1516.Google Scholar
  88. Samuel, J. L.; Eccles, J. A.; and Francis, J. 1981. Salmonella in the intestinal tract and associated lymph nodes of sheep and cattle./ Hyg. Camb. 87: 225–232.Google Scholar
  89. Schuler, G. A., and Badenhop, A. F. 1972. Microbiology survey of equipment in selected poultry processing plants. Poultry Sci. 51: 830–835.Google Scholar
  90. Schwab, A. H.; Harpestad, A. D.; Swartzentruber, A.; Lanier, J. M.; Wentz, B. A.; Duran, A. P.; Barnard, R.J.; and Read, R. B., Jr. 1982. Microbiological quality of some spices and herbs in retail markets. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 44: 627–630.Google Scholar
  91. Seligmann, R., and Rosenbluth, S. 1975. Comparison of bacterial flora on hands of personnel engaged in non-food and in food industries: a study of transient and resident bacteria./ Milk Food Technol. 38: 673–677.Google Scholar
  92. Smeltzer, T.; Thomas, R.; and Collins, G. 1980a. The role of equipment having accidental or indirect contact with the carcase in the spread of Salmonella in an abattoir. Aust. Vet. J. 56: 14–17.Google Scholar
  93. Smeltzer, T.; Thomas, R.; and Collins, G. 1980b. Salmonellae on posts, hand-rails and hands in a beef abattoir. Aust. Vet. J. 56: 184–186.Google Scholar
  94. Speck, R. S.; Calloway, D. H.; and Hadley, W. K. 1970. Human fecal flora under controlled diet intake. Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 23: 1488–1494.Google Scholar
  95. Splittstoesser, D. F. 1973. The microbiology of frozen vegetables. Food Technol. 27: 54–56, 60.Google Scholar
  96. Stek, M., Jr. 1982. Cockroaches and enteric pathogens. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 76: 566–567.Google Scholar
  97. Stolle, A. 1981. Spreading of salmonellas during cattle slaughtering./ Appi. Bacteriol. 50: 239–245.Google Scholar
  98. Sunga, F. C. A.; Heldman, D. R.; and Hedrick, T. I. 1970. Microorganisms from arms and hands of dairy plant workers. J. Milk Food Technol. 33: 178–181.Google Scholar
  99. Tamminga, S. K.; Beumer, R. R.; and Kampelmacher, E. H. 1978. The hygienic quality of vegetables grown in or imported into the Netherlands: A tentative survey. J. Hyg. Camb., 80: 143–154.Google Scholar
  100. Teltsch, B., and Katzenelson, E. 1978. Airborne enteric bacteria and viruses from spray irrigation with wastewater. Appl. Eviron. Microbiol. 35: 290–296.Google Scholar
  101. Teltsch, B.; Shuval, H. I.; and Tadmor, J. 1980. Die-away kinetics of aerosolized bacteria from sprinkler application of wastewater. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 39: 1191–1197.Google Scholar
  102. Thomas, C. J., and McMeekin, T. A. 1980. Contamination of broiler carcass skin during commercial processing procedures: An electron microscopic study. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 40: 133–144.Google Scholar
  103. Thomas, C. J., and McMeekin, T. A. 1982. Effect of water immersion on the microtopography of the skin of chicken carcasses./ Sci Food Agr. 33: 549–554.Google Scholar
  104. Thomas, S. B.; Druce, R. G.; and Jones, M. 1971. Influence of production conditions on the bacteriological quality of refrigerated farm bulk tank milk-A review. J. Appt. Bacteriol. 34: 659–677.Google Scholar
  105. Thompson, P.J., and Griffith, M. A. 1983. Identity of mesophilic anaerobic sporeformers cultured from recycled cannery cooling water. J. Food Prot. 46: 400–402.Google Scholar
  106. Tierney, J. T.; Sullivan, R.; and Larkin, E. P. 1977. Persistence of poliovirus 1 in soil and on vegetables grown in soil previously flooded with inoculated sewage sludge or effluent. Appt. Environ. Microbiol. 33: 109–113.Google Scholar
  107. Tjaberg, T. B.; Underdal, B.; and Lunde, G. 1972. The effect of ionizing radiation on the microbiological content and volatile constitutents of spices./ Appt. Bacteriol. 35: 473–478.Google Scholar
  108. Vanderzant, C., and Nickelson, R. 1969. A microbiological examination of muscle tissue of beef, pork, and lamb carcasses. J. Milk Food Technol. 32: 357–361.Google Scholar
  109. Van Donsel, D. J., and Larkin, E. P. 1977. Persistence of Mycobacterium bovis BCG in soil and on vegetables spray-irrigated with sewage effluent and sludge. J. Food Protect. 40: 160–163.Google Scholar
  110. Ward, R. L., and Ashley, C. S. 1980. Effects of wastewater sludge and its detergents on the stability of rotavirus. Appi. Environ. Microbiol. 39: 1154–1158.Google Scholar
  111. Yaziz, M. I., and Lloyd, B.J. 1982. The removal of Salmonella enteritidis in activated sludge. J. Appi. Bacteriol. 53: 169–172.Google Scholar
  112. Yeager, J. G., and O’Brien, R. T. 1979a. Enterovirus inactivation in soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 38: 694–701.Google Scholar
  113. Yeager, J. G., and O’Brien, R. T. 1979b. Structural changes associated with poliovirus inactivation in soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 38: 702–709.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Van Nostrand Reinhold 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • George J. Banwart
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyThe Ohio State UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations