Modeling Social Systems and Their Interaction with the Environment: A View from Geography

  • Diana Liverman


There is a long tradition of attempts to explain the pattern and dynamics of the human use of land and resources. A range of abstractions and computer simulations derived from theory and empirical data—models in the broadest sense—have been used to describe agricultural and industrial use and misuse of the environment.


Soil Erosion Human Geography Universal Soil Loss Equation Modeling Enterprise American Geographer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams, R. M., C. Rosenzweig, R. M. Peart, J. T. Ritchie, B. A. McCarl, J. D. Glyer, R. B. Curry, J. W. Jones, K. J. Boote, and L. H. Allen, Jr. 1990. Global climate change and US agriculture. Nature 345: 219–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, J. C., and D. F. Barnes. 1985. The causes of deforestation in developing countries. Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 75: 163–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker, O. E. 1926. Agricultural regions of North America. Economic Geography 2: 459–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barney, G. O. 1980. The Global 2000 Report. Pergamon, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Bolin, B. (ed). 1986. The Greenhouse Effect, Climate Change and Ecosystems. SCOPE 29. John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  6. Browder, J. (ed.). 1989. The Fragile Lands of Latin America. Westview, Boulder, CO.Google Scholar
  7. Buringh, P. 1977. Food production potential of world. World Development 5: 477–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chisholm, M. 1966. Rural Settlement and Land Use. Humanities Press, Atlantic Highlands, NJ.Google Scholar
  9. Chorley, R. J., and P. Haggett (eds.). 1967. Models in Geography. Methuen, London.Google Scholar
  10. Clark, C. 1967. Population Growth and Land Use. St. Martin’s, New York.Google Scholar
  11. Clark, J., and S. Cole. 1975. Global Simulation Models: A Comparative Study. Wiley, London.Google Scholar
  12. Cole, H. S. D., C. Freeman, M. Jahoda, and R. L. R. Pavitt (eds.). 1973. Models of Doom. Universe Books, New York.Google Scholar
  13. Denevan, W. M. 1989. Chapter 1. In J. Browder (ed.). The Fragile Lands of Latin America. Westview, Boulder, CO.Google Scholar
  14. Deutsch, K. W., B. Fitch, H. Jaguaribe, and A. Markovitz (eds.). 1977. Problems of World Modeling. Ballinger, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  15. Ehrlich, P., and A. Ehrlich. 1990. The Population Explosion. Simon & Schuster, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Emmanuel, W. R., H. H. Shugart, and M. P. Stevenson. 1985. Climate change and the broad scale distribution of terrestrial ecosystem complexes. Climatic Change 7: 29–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. FitzSimmons, M. I. 1987. The new industrial agriculture. Economic Geography 62: 334353.Google Scholar
  18. Gilbert, A. 1988. The new regional geography in English and French-speaking countries. Progress in Human Geography 12: 208–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Goodman, D., and M. Redcliff. 1991. Refashioning Nature. Routledge, New York.Google Scholar
  20. Hagerstrand, T. 1968. Innovation Diffusion as a Spatial Process. Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.Google Scholar
  21. Hagerstrand, T. 1952. The propagation of innovation waves. Lund Studies in Geography. Series B. Human Geography 4:3–9.Google Scholar
  22. Haggett, P. 1969. Locational Analysis in Human Geography. St. Martin, New York.Google Scholar
  23. Hardin, G. 1972. Exploring New Ethics for Survival: The Voyage of Spaceship Beagle. Viking, New York.Google Scholar
  24. Harrison, P. 1983. Land and people, the growing pressure, in FAO Economic and Social Development Series, Land, Food and People. FAO, Rome.Google Scholar
  25. Hartshorne, R. J. 1939. The Nature of Geography. Association of American Geographers, Lancaster, PA.Google Scholar
  26. Harvey, D. 1966. Theoretical concepts and the analysis of agricultural land use patterns in geography. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 56: 361–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Heady, E. O., and A. C. Egbert. 1964. Regional programming of efficient agricultural production patterns. Econometrica 32: 374–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hughes, B. B. 1981. World Modeling. Lexington, Lexington.Google Scholar
  29. Huntington, E. 1962. “The distribution of civilization. In E. Huntington (ed.). Mainsprings of Civilization. Ayer Co. Publishers, Salem, NH, pp. 391–408.Google Scholar
  30. Johnston, R. J. 1980. Geography and Geographers. Halsted Press, New York.Google Scholar
  31. Johnston, R. J. and D. Gregory. 1986. The Dictionary of Human Geography. Basil Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  32. Kolars, J. F., and J. D. Nystuen. 1974. Human Geography: Spatial Design in a World Society. McGraw Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  33. Larson, W. E., F. H. Pierce, and R. H. Dowdy. 1983. The threat of soil erosion to long term crop production. Science 219: 458–465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Leontief, W., A. Carter, and P. Petrie. 1977. Future of the World Economy. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  35. Lieth, H., and R. H. Whittaker. 1975. The Primary Production of the Biosphere. Ecological Studies No. 14. Springer-Verlag, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Linnemann, H., J. de Hoogh, M. A. Keyzer, and H.D.J. Van Heemst. 1979. MOIRA: Model of International Relations in Agriculture. North Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  37. Liverman, D. M. 1986. The response of a global food model to climate change and variation: A sensitivity analysis of IFS. Journal of Climatology 6: 355–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Liverman, D. M., and K. Frohberg. 1988. Preliminary results of climate change scenarios in the IIASA-FAP model (unpublished report).Google Scholar
  39. Liverman, D. M. 1989. Evaluating global models. Journal of Environmental Management 29: 215–235.Google Scholar
  40. Losch, A. 1954. The Economics of Location Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.Google Scholar
  41. Macmillan, B. (ed.). 1989. Remodelling Geography. Basil Blackwell, London.Google Scholar
  42. Meadows, D. H., D. L. Meadows, J. Randers, and W. K. Behrens III. 1972. Limits to Growth. Universe Books, New York.Google Scholar
  43. Meadows, D. H., W. Richardson, and G. Bruckman. 1983. Groping in the Dark: A History of the First Decade of Global Modeling. John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  44. Mesarovic, M., and E. Pestel. 1974. Mankind at the Turning Point. E. Dutton, New York.Google Scholar
  45. Myrdal, G. 1971. Economic Theory and Underdeveloped Regions. Harper & Row, NY.Google Scholar
  46. National Research Council. 1992. Global Environmental Change: The Human Dimensions. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  47. Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). 1982. Global Models, World Futures and Public Policy: A Critique. OTA, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  48. Parry, M. L., T. R. Carter, and N. T. Konjin (eds.). 1988. The Impact of Climate Variations on Agriculture. Reidel, Dordecht, Holland, Vols. 1 and 2.Google Scholar
  49. Peet, R. 1985. The social origins of environmental determinism. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 75: 309–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pepper, D. 1984. The Roots of Modern Environmentalism. Chapman & Hall, London.Google Scholar
  51. Revelle, R. 1976. The resources available for agriculture. In Scientific American’s Food and Agriculture. W.H. Freeman, San Francisco, CA, pp. 113–125.Google Scholar
  52. Robinson, J. 1985. Global modeling and simulation. In R.W. Kates, J. Ausubel, and M. Berberain (eds.). Climate Impact Assessment. John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  53. Semple, E. C. 1911. Influences of Geographic Environment. Holt and Company, New York.Google Scholar
  54. Smith, N. 1984. Uneven Development: Nature, Capital and the Production of Space. Blackwell, London.Google Scholar
  55. Taylor, G. 1930. Agricultural regions of Australia. Economic Geography 6: 109–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Thomas, R. W., and R. J. Huggett. 1980. Modelling in Geography. Barnes and Noble, Totowa, NJ.Google Scholar
  57. Von Thünen, J. H. 1966. Isolated State. (an English translation of Der Isolierte Staat. Translated by Carlam Wartenberg) Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  58. Wolpert, J. 1964. The decision process in a spatial context. Annals of the Association of American Geographer 54: 537–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Yapa, L. S. 1977. The Green Revolution: a diffusion model. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 67: 350–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Diana Liverman

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations