Integrated regional models (IRM) are conceptual and mathematical models that may include, depending upon the application, components that describe the physical environment, biological interactions and human decision-making and its consequences.Disciplinary, regional or partly coupled models now exist in the atmospheric, ecological and social sciences. Work is in progress to couple these disciplinary models in response to a variety of contemporary environmental problems. Progress on coupling has been limited by lack of interaction among disciplines, lack of an accepted interdisciplinary framework, differences in technical approaches, and the absence of appropriate supporting data sets. In many cases, coupling is also inhibited by inadequacies of the disciplinary science, in that, in many cases, disciplinary studies have not addressed the processes that couple the system of focus to other system components. In many models, the coupling variables are not simulated as well as the internal dynamics within the component (Parton et al., in press). The severity and complexity of regional environmental problems, and the significant contribution of regional problems to global environmental issues dictates that progress in interdisciplinary and collaborative modeling be accelerated.
KeywordsGlobal Biogeochemical Cycle Coupling Variable Fractional Vegetation Cover East Asian Monsoon Region Global Environmental Issue
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Aber, J. D., K. Nadlehoffer, P. A. Steudler, and J. M. Melillo. 1989. Nitrogen saturation in northern forest ecosystems—Hypotheses and implications. Bioscience 39: 378–386.Google Scholar
- Archer, S., C. Scifres, C. R. Bassham, and R. Maggio. 1988. Autogenic succession in a subtropical savanna: conversion of grassland to thorn woodland. Ecological Monographs 58:111–127.Google Scholar
- Bretherton, F. B., R. E. Dickinson, I. Fung, B. Moore III, M. Prather, S. Running, and H. Tiessen. 1992. Report: Linkages between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. In D.S. Ojima (ed.). Modeling the Earth System. UCAR/Office for Interdisciplinary Earth Studies, Boulder Colorado, pp. 181–196.Google Scholar
- Dickinson, R. E. 1992. Land surface. In K. E. Trenberth (ed.). Earth System Modeling. Cambridge, New York, pp. 149–172.Google Scholar
- Georgi, F. 1990. Simulation of regional climate using a limited area model nested in a general circulation model. Journal of Climate 3: 942–963.Google Scholar
- Hall, C. A. S. 1992. Economic development or developing economics: what are our priorities? In M. K. Wali (ed.). Ecosystem Rehabilitation, Vol. 1. Policy Issues. SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, pp. 101–126.Google Scholar
- Houghton, J. T., G. J. Jenkins, and J. J. Ephraums (eds.). 1990. Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
- Parton, W. J., D. S. Schimel, C. V. Coleand, and D. S. Ojima. 1987. Analysis of factors controlling soil organic matter levels in Great Plains grasslands. Soil Science Society of America Journal 51:1173–1179.Google Scholar
- Parton, W. J., J. M. O. Scurlock, D. S. Ojima, T. G. Gilmanov, R. J. Scholes, D. S. Schimel, T. Kirchner, J-C Menaut, T. Seastedt, E. Garcia Moya, A. Kamnalrut, and J. I. Kinyamario. Observations and modeling of biomass and soil organic matter for the grassland biome worldwide. Global Biogeochemical Cycles,in press.Google Scholar
- Running, S. W. 1991. Computer simulation of regional evapotanspiration by integrating landscape biophysical attributes with satellite data. In Land Surface Evaporation, Measurement and Parameterization. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 359–369.Google Scholar
- Schimel, D. S., T. G. F. Kittel, and W. J. Parton. 1991. Terrestrial biogeochemical cycles: global interactions with the atmosphere and hydrology. Tellus 43AB:118–203.Google Scholar
- Trenberth, K. E., G. W. Branstator, and P. A. Arkin. 1992. Origins of the 1988 North American drought. Science 242:1640–1645.Google Scholar