Regulation and Expression of Bacterial Adhesins

  • Itzhak Ofek
  • Ronald J. Doyle


There are various levels of complexity in bacterial cell surfaces. In Chapter 4, the main features of the Gram-negative and Gram-positive surfaces were reviewed. It was seen for both cell types that their surfaces were composed of components that associate noncovalently to form a supramolecular structure. These noncovalently associated molecules may be essential for survival of the bacteria in a particular environment. In general, it seems that adhesins are of the “associated” molecules. For example, in the case of S. pyogenes, M-proteins possess a domain that enables the proteins to be anchored to the wall matrix, whereas another domain is exposed and capable of interacting with lipoteichoic acid (LTA). In this sense then, the adhesin (LTA) is “carried” by M-protein or other surface proteins in order for the bacterium to adhere to an appropriate substratum (see also Chapter 6 for details). Similarly, in the Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae, the adhesin(s) molecules are associated with fimbrial subunits forming a complex in which the fimbrial subunit is the major protein (Figure 9–1) (see Chapter 5). This is especially true in E. coli and may be true for other Enterobacteriaceae as well. It may, therefore, be a common strategy for bacteria to assemble the adhesin onto some other surface structure that serves as a carrier thereby forming an adhesive complex. This strategy would ensure that the adhesin is one of the most exposed molecules on the bacterial surface. The adhesin complex not only must be expressed in functional form on the bacterial surfaces but the organisms must also be able to regulate the expression or presentation of the adhesins in a functional form during the infectious process. Indeed, in all systems studied, one can always find adhesive and nonadhesive phenotypes of the same bacterial clone, and in many cases growth conditions that favor growth of one phenotype over the other have been defined.


Gene Cluster Outer Membrane Protein Bacterial Adhesion Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Major Subunit 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abe, C., S. Schmitz, I. Moser, G. Boulnois, N.J. High, I. Orskov, F. Orskov, B. Jann, and K. Jann. 1987. Monoclonal antibodies with fimbrial F1C, F12, F13, and F14 specificities obtained with fimbriae from E. coli 04:Ki2H - . Microb. Pathogen. 2: 71–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abraham, S.N., D.L. Hasty, W.A. Simpson, and E.H. Beachey. 1983. Antiadhesive properties of a quarternary structure hybridoma antibody against type 1 fimbriae of Escherichia coli. J. Exp. Med. 158: 1114–1128.Google Scholar
  3. Abraham, S.N., J. Babu, C. Giampapa, D. Hasty, W. Simpson, and E. Beachey. 1985. Protection against Escherichia coli-induced urinary tract infections with hybridoma antibodies directed against type 1 fimbriae or complementary D-mannose receptors. Infect. Immun. 48: 625–628.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Abraham, J.M., C.S. Freitag, R.M. Gander, J.R. Clements, V.L. Thomas, and B.I. Eisenstein. 1986. Fimbrial phase variation and DNA rearrangements in uropathogenic isolates of Escherichia coli. Mol. Biol. Med. 3: 495–508.Google Scholar
  5. Abraham, S.N., J.D. Goguen, D. Sun, P. Klemm, and E.H. Beachey. 1987. Identification of two ancillary subunits of Escherichia coli type 1 fimbriae by using antibodies against synthetic oligopeptides of fim gene products. J. Bacteriol. 169: 5530–5536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Abraham, S.N., J.D. Goguen, and E.H. Beachey. 1988a. Hyperadhesive mutant of type-1 fimbriated Escherichia coli associated with formation of Fim H organelles (fimbriosomes). Infect. Immun. 56: 1023–1029.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Abraham, S.N., D. Sun, J.B. Dale, and E.H. Beachey. 1988b. Conservation of the Dmannose-adhesion protein among type 1 fimbriated members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Nature 336: 682–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Anderson, D.G. and S.L. Moseley. 1988. Escherichia coli F41 adhesin: genetic organization, nucleotide sequence, and homology with the K88 determinant. J. Bacteriol. 170: 4890–4896.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Archambaud, M., P. Courcoux, and A. Labigne-Roussel. 1988a. Detection by molecular hybridization of PAP, AFA, and SFA adherence systems in Escherichia coli strains associated with urinary and enteral infections. Ann. Inst. Pasteur/Microbiol. 139: 575–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Archambaud, M., P. Courcoux, V. Ouin, G. Chabanon, and A. Labigne-Roussel. 1988b. Phenotypic and genotypic assays for the detection and identification of adhesins from pyelonephritic Escherichia coli. Ann. Inst. Pasteur/Microbiol. 139: 557–573.Google Scholar
  11. Arthur, M., C. Campanelli, R.D. Arbeit, C. Kim, S. Steinbach, C.E. Johnson, R.H. Rubin, and R. Goldstein. 1989a. Structure and copy number of gene clusters related to the papP-adhesin operon of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 57: 314–321.Google Scholar
  12. Arthur, M., C.E. Johnson, R.H. Rubin, R.D. Arbeit, C. Campanelli, C. Kim, S. Steinbach, M. Agarwal, R. Wilkinson, and R. Goldstein. 1989b. Molecular epidemiology of adhesin and hemolysin virulence factors among uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 57: 303–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Arthur, M., R.D. Arbeit, C. Kim, P. Beltran, H. Crowe, S. Steinbach, C. Campanelli, R.A. Wilson, R.K. Selander, and R. Goldstein. 1990. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms among uropathogenic Escherichia coli: pap-related sequences compared with rrn operons. Infect. Immun. 58: 471–479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Baga, M., S. Normark, J. Hardy, P. O’Hanley, D. Lark, O. Olsson, G. Schoolnik, and S. Falkow. 1984. Nucleotide sequence of the pap A gene encoding the pap pilus subunit of human uropathogenic Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 157: 330–333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Baga, M., M. Göransson, S. Normark, and B.E. Uhlin. 1985. Transcriptional activation of a Pap pilus virulence operon from uropathogenic Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 4: 3387–3893.Google Scholar
  16. Baga, M., M. Norgren, and S. Normark. 1987. Biogenesis of E. coli Pap-pili: Pap H, a minor pilin subunit involved in cell anchoring and length modulation. Cell 49: 241–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Baga, M., M. Göransson, S. Normark, and B.E. Uhlin. 1988. Processed mRNA with differential stability in the regulation of E. coli pilin gene expression. Cell 52: 197–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Balligand, G., Y. Laroche, and G. Cornelis. 1985. Genetic analysis of virulence plasmid from a serogroup 9 Yersinia enterocolitica strain: role of outer membrane protein Pl in resistance to human serum and autoagglutination. Infect. Immun. 48: 782–786.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Banas, J.A., R.R.B. Russell, and J.J. Ferretti. 1990. Sequence analysis of the gene for the glucan-binding protein of Streptococcus mutans Ingbritt. Infect. Immun. 58: 667–673.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Barondes, S. 1988. Bifunctional properties of lectins: lectins redefined. Trends Biochem. Sci. 13: 480–482.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Beachey, E.H., C.S. Giampapa, and S.N. Abraham. 1988. Bacterial adherence. Adhesin receptor-mediated attachment of pathogenic bacteria to mucosal surfaces. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 138: S45 - S48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Beard, M.K.M., J.S. Mattick, L.J. Moore, M.R. Mott, C.F. Marrs, and J.R. Egerton. 1990. Morphogenetic expression of Moraxella bovis fimbriae (pili) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J. Bacteriol. 172: 2601–2607.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Berger, H., J. Jacker, A. Juarez, C. Hughes, and W. Geobel. 1982. Cloning of the chromosomal determinants encoding hemolysin production and mannose-resistant hem-agglutination in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 152: 1241–1247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bilge, S.S., C.R. Clausen, W. Lau, and S.L. Moseley. 1989. Molecular characterization of a fimbrial adhesin, F1845, mediating diffuse adherence of diarrhea-associated Escherichia coli to HEp-2 cells. J. Bacteriol. 171: 4281–4289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Blomberg, L. and P.L. Conway. 1991. Influence of raffinose on the relative synthesis rate of K88 fimbria and the adhesive capacity of Escherichia coli K88. Microb. Pathogen. 11: 143–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Blomfield, I.C., M.S. McClain, and B.I. Eisenstein. 1991a. Type 1 fimbriae mutants of Escherichia coli K12: characterization of recognized afimbriate strains and construction of new fim deletion mutants. Mol. Microbiol. 5: 1439–1445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Blomfield, I.C., M.S. McClain, J.A. Princ, P.J. Calie, and B.I. Eisenstein. 1991b. Type 1 fimbriation and fimE mutants of Escherichia coli K12. J. Bacteriol. 173: 5298–5307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Boylan, M. and S.J. Smyth. 1985. Mobilization of CS fimbriae-associated plasmids of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli of serotype 06:K15:H16 or H- into various wild-type hosts. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 29: 83–89.Google Scholar
  29. Boylan, M., D.C. Coleman, and C.J. Smyth. 1987. Molecular cloning and characterization of the genetic determinant encoding CS3 fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Microb. Pathogen. 2: 195–209.Google Scholar
  30. Boylan, M., C.J. Smyth, and J.R. Scott. 1988. Nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the major subunit of CS3 fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 56: 3297–3300.Google Scholar
  31. Brinton, C.C., Jr. 1959. Non-flagellar appengates of bacteria. Nature (Lond.) 183: 782–786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Brinton, C.C., Jr. (1965). The structure, function, synthesis and genetic control of bacterial pili and a molecular mechanism for DNA and RNA transport in Gram-negative bacteria. Trans. NY Acad. Sci. 27: 1003–1054.Google Scholar
  33. Brinton, C.C., P.C. Gemski, Jr., S. Falkow, and L.S. Baron. 1961. Location of the piliation factor on the chromosome of Escherichia coli. Biophys. Biochem. Res. Commun. 5: 293–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Brown, D.R. and C.D. Parker. 1987. Cloning of the filamentous hemagglutinin of Borde- tella pertussis and its expression in Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 55: 154–161.Google Scholar
  35. Buchanan, T.M. 1975. Antigenic heterogeneity of gonococcal pili. J. Exp. Med. 141: 1470–1475.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Buchanan, K., S. Falkow, R.A. Hull, and S.I. Hull. 1985. Frequency among Enterobac- teriaceae of the DNA sequences encoding type 1 pili. J. Bacteriol. 162: 799–803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Bühler, T., H. Hoschützky, and K. Jann. 1991. Analysis of colonization factor antigen I, an adhesin of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli 078:H11:fimbrial morphology and location of the receptor-binding site. Infect. Immun. 59: 3876–3882.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Cheney, C.P., S.B. Formal, P.A. Schad, and E.C. Boedeker. 1990. Genetic transfer of a mucosal adherence factor (R1) from an enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strain into a Shigella flexneri strain and the phenotypic suppression of this adherence factor. J. Infect. Dis. 147: 711–723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Clegg, S. 1982. Cloning of genes determining the production of mannose-resistant fimbriae in a uropathogenic strain of Escherichia coli belonging to serogroup 06. Infect. Immun. 38: 739–744.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Clegg, S. and J.K. Pierce. 1983. Organization of genes responsible for the production of mannose-resistant fimbriae of a uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolate. Infect. Immun. 42: 900–906.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Clegg, S., S. Hull, R. Hull, and J. Pruckler. 1985a. Construction and comparison of recombinant plasmids encoding type 1 fimbriae of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Infect. Immun. 48: 275–279.Google Scholar
  42. Clegg, S., J. Pruckler, and B.K. Purcell. 1985b. Complementation analyses of recombinant plasmids encoding type 1 fimbriae of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Infect. Immun. 50: 338–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Clegg, S., B.K. Purcell, and J. Pruckler. 1987. Characterization of genes encoding type 1 fimbriae of Klebsiella penumoniae, Salmonella typimurium, and Serratia marcescens. Infect. Immun. 55: 281–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Connell, T.D., W.J. Black, T.H. Kawula, D.S. Barritt, J.A. Dempsey, K. Kverneland, Jr., A. Stephenson, B.S. Schepart, G.L. Murphy, and J.G. Cannon. 1988. Recombination among protein II genes of Neisseria gonorrhoeae generates new coding sequences and increases structural variability in the protein II family. Mol. Microbiol. 2: 227–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Dallo, S.F., C.J. Su, J.R. Horton, and J.B. Baseman. 1988. Identification of P1 gene domain containing epitope(s) mediating Mycoplasma pneumoniae cytadherence. J. Exp. Med. 167: 718–723.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. DeGraaf, F.K. 1990. Genetics of adhesive fimbriae of intestinal Escherichia coli. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 151: 29–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. DeGraaf, F.K., and P. Klassen. 1986. Organization and expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis of 987P fimbriae. Mol. Gen. Genet. 204: 75–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. DeGraaf, F.K. and P. Klassen. 1987. Nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the 987P fimbrial subunit of Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 42: 253–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. DeGraaf, F.K. and F.R. Mooi. 1986. The fimbrial adhesins of Escherichia coli. Adv. Microbial Physiol. 28: 65–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. DeGraaf, F.K., B.E. Krenn, and P. Klaasen. 1984. Organization and expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis of K99 fimbriae. Infect. Immun. 43: 508–514.Google Scholar
  51. Delisse-Gathoye, A.M., C. Locht, F. Jacob, M. Raaschou-Nielsen, I. Heron, J.L. Ruelle, M. De Wild, and T. Cabezon. 1990. Cloning, partial sequence, expression, and antigenic analysis of the filamentous hemagglutinin gene of Bordetella pertussis. Infect. Immun. 58: 2895–2905.Google Scholar
  52. Demuth, D.R., C. Davis, A. Corner, R. Lamont, P. Leboy, and D. Malamud. 1988. Cloning and expression of Streptococcus sanguis surface antigen that interacts with a human salivary agglutinin. Infect. Immun. 56: 2484–2490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Denich, K., A. Craiu, H. Rugo, G. Muralidhar, and P. O’Hanley. 1991. Frequency and organization of papA homologous DNA sequences among uropathogenic digalactosidebinding Escherichia coli strains. Infect. Immun. 59: 2089–2096.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. deRee, J.M., P. Schwillens, P. Promes, I. Van Die, H. Bergmans, and J.F. Van den Bosch. 1985. Molecular cloning and characterization of F9 fimbriae from a uropathogenic Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 26: 163–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Dickinson, D.P., M.A. Kubiniec, F. Yoshimura, and R.J. Genco. 1988. Molecular cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding the fimbrial subunit protein of Bacteroides gingivalis. J. Bacteriol. 170: 1658–1665.Google Scholar
  56. Dodd, D.C., P.J. Bassford, Jr., and B.I. Eisenstein. 1984. Dependence of secretion and assembly of type 1 fimbrial subunits of Escherichia coli on normal protein export. J. Bacteriol. 159: 1077–1079.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Donkersloot, J.A., J.O. Cisar, M.E. Wax, R.J. Han, and B.M. Chassy. 1990. Expression of Antinomyces viscosus antigens in Escherichia colis cloning of a structural gene (fimA) for type 2 fimbriae. J. Bacteriol. 162: 1075–1078.Google Scholar
  58. Dorman, C.J. and C.F. Higgins. 1987. Fimbrial phase variation in Escherichia coli: dependence on integration host factor and homologies with other site-specific recombinases. J. Bacteriol. 169: 3840–3843.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Duguid, J.P. and Old, D.C. 1980. Adhesive properties of Enterobacteriaceae. In: E.H. Beachey (ed.), Bacterial Adherence (Receptors and Recognition, Vol. 6). Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 85–217.Google Scholar
  60. Echeverria P., J. Seriwatana, D.N. Taylor, S. Changchawalit, C.J. Smyth, J. Twohig, and B. Rowe. 1986. Plasmids coding for colonization factor antigens I and II, LT, and ST-A2 in Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 51: 626–630.Google Scholar
  61. Eisenstein, B.I. 1981. Phase variation of type 1 fimbriae in Escherichia coli is under transcriptional control. Science 214: 337–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Eisenstein, B.I. and D.C. Dodd. 1982. Pseudocatabolite repression of type 1 fimbriae of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 151: 1560–1567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Eisenstein, B.I., J.R. Clements, and D.C. Dodd. 1983. Isolation and characterization of a monoclonal antibody directed against type 1 fimbriae organelles from Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 42: 333.Google Scholar
  64. Eisenstein, B.I., D.S. Sweet, V. Vaughn, and D.I. Friedman. 1987. Integration host factor is required for the DNA inversion that controls phase variation in Escherichia coli. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84: 6506–6510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Elleman, T.C., P.A. Hoyne, and A.W.D. Lepper. 1990. Characterization of the pilin gene of Moraxella bovis Dalton 2d and expression of pili from M. bovis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Infect. Immun. 58: 1678–1684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Eshdat, Y., F.J. Silverblatt, and N. Sharon. 1981. Dissociation and reassembly of Escherichia coli type 1 pili. J. Bacteriol. 148: 308–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Evans, D.J., Jr. and D.G. Evans. 1990. Colonization factor antigens of human pathogens. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 151: 129–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Fader, R.C., L.K. Duffy, C.P. Davis, and A. Kurosky. 1982. Purification and chemical characterization of type-1 pili isolated from Klebsiella pneumoniae. J. Biol. Chem. 257: 3301–3305.Google Scholar
  69. Fenno, J.C., D.J. LeBlanc, and P. Fives-Taylor. 1989. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a type 1 fimbrial gene of Streptococcus sanguis FW213. Infect. Immun. 57: 3527–3533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Fives-Taylor, P.M., F.L. Macrina, T.J. Pritchard, and S.S. Peene. 1987. Expression of Streptococcus sanguis antigens in Escherichia coli: cloning of a structural gene for adhesion fimbriae. Infect. Immun. 55: 123–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Flock, J.I., G. Froman, K. Jonsson, B. Guss, C. Signas, B. Nilsson, G. Raucci, M. Hook, T. Wadström, and M. Lindberg. 1987. Cloning and expression of the gene for a fibronectin-binding protein from Staphylococcus aureus. EMBO J. 6: 2351–2357.Google Scholar
  72. Forsman, K., M. Göransson, and B.E. Uhlin. 1989. Autoregulation and multiple DNA interactions by a transcriptional regulatory protein in E. coli pili biogenesis. EMBO J. 8: 1271–1278.Google Scholar
  73. Freitag, C.S., J.M. Abraham, J.R. Clements, Jr., and B.I. Eisenstein. 1985. Genetic analysis of the phase variation control of expression of type 1 fimbriae in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 162: 668–675.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Frydenberg, J., K. Lind, and P.C. Hu. 1987. Cloning of Mycoplasma pneumoniae DNA and expression of P1-epitopes in Escherichia coli. Isr. J. Med. Sci. 23: 759–762.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Fulks, K.A., C.F. Mans, S.P. Stevens, and M.R. Green. 1990. Sequence analysis of the inversion region containing the pilin genes of Moraxella bovis. J. Bacteriol. 172: 310–316.Google Scholar
  76. Gaastra, W., F.R. Mooi, A.R. Stuitje, and F.K. DeGraaf. 1981. The nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the K88ab protein subunit of porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 12: 41–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ganeshkumar, N., M. Song, and B.C. McBride. 1988. Cloning of Streptococcus sanguis adhesin which mediates binding to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite. Infect. Immun. 56: 1150–1157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Ganeshkumar, N., P.M. Hannam, P.E. Kolenbrander, and B.C. McBride. 1991. Nucleotide sequence of a gene coding for a saliva-binding protein (SsaB) from Streptococcus sanguis 12 and possible role of the protein in coaggregation with Actinomyces. Infect. Immun. 59: 1093–1099.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Gerlach, G.F. and S. Clegg. 1988a. Characterization of two genes encoding antigenically distinct type-1 fimbriae of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Gene 64: 2321–2340.Google Scholar
  80. Gerlach, G.F. and S. Clegg. 1988b. Identification and characterization of the genes encoding the type 3 and type 1 fimbrial adhesins of Klebsiella pneumoniae. J. Bacteriol. 171: 1262–1270.Google Scholar
  81. Gerlach, G.F., B.L. Allen, and S. Clegg. 1988. Molecular characterization of the type 3 (MR/K) fimbriae of Klebsiella pneumoniae. J. Bacteriol. 170: 3547–3553.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Gerlach, G.F., S. Clegg, N.J. Ness, D. Swenson, B.L. Allen, and W.A. Nichols. 1989. Expression of type 1 fimbriae and mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin by recombinant plasmids. Infect. Immun. 57: 764–770.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Gibbs, C.P., B.-Y Reimann, E. Schultz, A. Kaufmann, R. Haas, and T.F. Meyer. 1989. Reassortment of pilin genes in Neisseria gonorrhoeae occurs by two distinct mechanisms. Nature 338: 651–652.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Gilsdorf, J.R., C.F. Mans, K.W. McCrea, and L.J. Forney. 1990. Cloning, expression and sequence analysis of the Haemophilus influenzae type b strain M43p+ pilin gene. Infect. Immun. 58: 1065–1072.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Girardeau, J.P., M. Der Vartanian, J.L. Oilier, and M. Contrepois. 1988. CS31A, a new K88-related fimbrial antigen on bovine enterotoxigenic and septicemic Escherichia coli strains. Infect. Immun. 56: 2180–2188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Goldhar, J., R. Perry, and I. Ofek. 1984. Extraction and properties of nonfimbrial mannose resistant hemagglutinin from a urinary isolate of Escherichia coli. Curr. Microbiol. 11: 49–54.Google Scholar
  87. Goldhar, J., R. Perry, J.R. Golecki, H. Hoschultzky, B. Jann, and K. Jann. 1987. Nonfimbrial, mannose-resistant adhesins from uropathogenic Escherichia coli 083:K1:H4 and 014:K?:H11. Infect. Immun. 55: 1837–1842.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Goochee, C.F., R.T. Hatch, and T.W. Cadman. 1987. Some observations on the role of type 1 fimbriae in Escherichia coli autoflocculation. 1986. Biotech. Bioeng. 29: 1024–1034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Göransson, M., K. Forsman, and B.E. Uhlin. 1988. Functional and structural homology among regulatory cistrons of pili-adhesin determinants in Escherichia coli. Mol. Gen. Genet. 212: 412–417.Google Scholar
  90. Göransson, M., K. Forsman, and B.E. Uhlin. 1989. Regulatory genes in the thermoregulation of Escherichia coli pili gene transcription. Genes Del,. 3: 123–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Grunberg, J., R. Perry, H. Hoschutzky, B. Jann, K. Jann, and J. Goldhar. 1988. Nonfimbrial blood group N-specific adhesin (NFA-3) from Escherichia coli 020:KX104:H-, causing systemic infection. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 56: 241–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Haas, R. and T.F. Meyer. 1986. The repertoire of silent pilus genes in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: evidence for gene conversion. Cell 44: 107–115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Hacker, J. 1990. Genetic determinants coding for fimbriae and adhesins of extra-intestinal Escherichia coli. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 151: 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Hacker, J., G. Schmidt, C. Hughes, S. Knapp, M. Marget, and W. Goebel. 1985. Cloning and characterization of genes involved in production of mannose-resistant, neuraminidase-susceptible (X) fimbriae from a uropathogenic 06:K15:H31 Escherichia coli strain. Infect. Immun. 47: 434–440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Hacker, J., T. Jarchau, S. Knapp, R. Mane, G. Schmidt, T. Schmoll, and W. Goebel. 1986a. Genetic and in vivo studies with S-fimbrial antigens and related virulence determinants of extraintestinal Escherichia coli strains. In: D. Lark (ed.). Protein-Carbohydrate Interactions in Biological Systems. Academic Press, London, pp. 125–133.Google Scholar
  96. Hacker, J., M. Ott, G. Schmidt, R. Hull, and W. Goebel. 1986b. Molecular cloning of the F8 fimbrial antigen from Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 36: 139–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Hagblom, P., E. Segal, E. Billyard, and M. So. 1985. Intragenic recombination leads to pilus antigenic variation in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Nature (Lond.) 315: 156–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Hales, B.A., H. Beverly-Clarke, N.J. High, K. Jann, R. Perry, J. Goldhar, and G.J. Boulnois. 1988. Molecular cloning and characterization of the genes for a non-fimbrial adhesin from Escherichia coli. Microb. Pathogen. 5: 9–17.Google Scholar
  99. Hanson, M.S. and C.C. Brinton, Jr. 1988. Identification and characterization of the Escherichia coli type 1 pilus tip adhesin protein. Nature (Lond.) 322: 265–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Harris, S.L., D.A. Elliott, M.C. Blake, L.M. Must, M. Messenger, and P. Orndorff. 1990. Isolation and characterization of mutants with lesions affecting pellicle formation and erythrocyte agglutination by type 1 piliated Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 172: 6411–6418.Google Scholar
  101. Hebeler, B.H. and F.E. Young. 1975. Autolysis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J. Bacteriol. 122: 385–392.Google Scholar
  102. Heckels, J.E. 1982. Structural comparison of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. In: Schlessinger, D. (ed.), Microbiology-1982. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, pp. 301–304.Google Scholar
  103. Hedegaard, L. and P. Klemm. 1989. Type 1 fimbriae of Escherichia coli as carriers of heterologous antigenic sequences. Gene 85: 115–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Heesemann, J. and L. Gruter. 1987. Genetic evidence that the outer membrane protein YOP1 of Yersinia enterocolitica mediates adherence and phagocytosis resistance to human epithelial cells. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 40: 37–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Hermodson, M.A., K.C.S. Chen, and T.M. Buchanan. 1978. Neisseria pili proteins: amino-terminal sequence and identification of an unusual amino acid. Biochemistry 17: 442–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. High, N.J., B.A. Hales, K. Jann, and G.J. Boulnois. 1988. A block of urovirulence genes encoding multiple fimbriae and hemolysin in Escherichia coli 04:K12:H-. Infect. Immun. 56: 513–517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Hinson, G., S. Knutton, M.K.L. Lam-Po-Tang, A.S. McNeish, and P. H. Williams. 1987. Adherence to human colonocytes of an Escherichia coli strain isolated from severe infantile enteritis: Molecular and ultrastructural studies of afibrillar adhesin. Infect. Immun. 55: 393–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Holmgren, A. and C.I. Bränden. 1989. Crystal structure of chaperone protein Pap D reveals an immunoglobulin fold. Nature 342: 248–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Holt, R.C., Y. Abiko, S. Saito, M. Smorawinska, J.B. Hansen, and R. Curtiss III. 1982. Streptococcus mutans genes that code for extracellular proteins in Escherichia coli K12. Infect. Immun. 38: 147–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Hornick, D.B., B.L. Allen, M.A. Horn, and S. Clegg. 1991. Fimbrial types among respiratory isolates belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29: 1795–1800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Hoschützky, H., R. Lottspeich, and K. Jann. 1989. Isolation and characterization of the a-galactosyl-1,4-/3-galactosyl-specific adhesin (P adhesin) from fimbriated Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 57: 76–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Hull, R.A., R.E. Gill, P. Hsu, B.H. Minshew, and S. Falkow. 1981. Construction and expression of recombinant plasmids encoding type 1 or D-mannose-resistant pili from a urinary tract infection Escherichia coli isolate. Infect. Immun. 33: 933–938.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Hull, R.A., S.I. Hull, and S. Falkow. 1984. Frequency of gene sequences necessary for pyelonephritis-associated pili expression among isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from human extraintestinal infections. Infect. Immun. 43: 1064–1067.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Hull, S.I., S. Bieler, and R.A. Hull. 1988. Restriction fragment length polymorphisme and multiple copies of DNA sequences homologous with probes for P-fimbriae and hemolysin genes among uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Can. J. Microbiol. 34: 307–311.Google Scholar
  115. Hultgren, S.J., W.R. Schwan, A.J. Schaeffer, and J.L. Duncan. 1986. Regulation of production of type 1 pili among urinary tract isolates of Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 54: 613–620.Google Scholar
  116. Hultgren, S.J., F. Lindberg, G. Magnusson, J. Kihlberg, J.M. Tennent, and S. Normark. 1989. The Pap G adhesin of uropathogenic Escherichia coli contains separate regions for receptor binding and for the incorporation into the pilus. Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86: 4357–4361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Hultgren, S.J., J.L. Duncan, A.J. Schaeffer, and S.K. Amundsen. 1990. Mannosesensitive haemagglutination in the absence of piliation of Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 4: 1311–1318.Google Scholar
  118. Hultgren, S.J., S. Normark, and S. Abraham. 1991. Chaperone-assisted assembly and molecular architecture of adhesive pili. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 45: 383–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Isberg, R.R. 1989. Determinants for thermoinducible cell binding and plasmid-encoded cellular penetration detected in the absence of the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis invasin protein. Infect. Immun. 57: 1998–2005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Isberg, R.R. and S. Falkow. 1985. A single genetic locus encoded by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis permits invasion of cultured animal cells by Escherichia coli K-12. Nature (Lond.) 317: 262–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Jacob, F., C. Capiau, A.M. Gathoye, C. Locht, and T. Cabezon. 1988. Molecular cloning of the filamentous hemagglutinin structural gene from Bordetella pertussis in Escherichia coli. In: Mebel, S., H. Stompe, M. Drescher, and S. Rustenback (eds.). FEMS Symposium on Pertussis. Berlin, German Democratic Republic, pp. 62–65.Google Scholar
  122. Jacobs, A.A.C. and F.K. DeGraaf. 1985. Production of K88, K99 and F41 fibrillae in relation to growth phase and a rapid procedure for adhesin purification. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 26: 15–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Jacobs, A.A.C., J. Venema, R. Leeven, H. Van Pelt-Heerschap, and F.K. DeGraaf. 1987a. Inhibition of adhesive activity of K88 fibrillae by peptides derived from the K88 adhesin. J. Bacteriol. 169: 735–741.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Jacobs, A.A.C., B. Roosendaal, J.F.L. van Breemen, and F.K. DeGraaf. 1987b. Role of phenylalanine 150 in the receptor-binding domain of the K88 fibrillar subunit. J. Bacteriol. 169: 4907–4911.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. James, J.F., C.J. Lammel, D.L. Draper, and G.F. Brooks. 1980. Attachment ofNeisseria gonorrhoeae colony phenotype variants to eukaryotic cells and tissues. In: Normark, S. and D. Danielsson (eds.), Genetics and Immuno-biology of Pathogenic Neisseria. University of Umea, Sweden, pp. 213–216.Google Scholar
  126. Jann, K. and Hoschützky. 1990. Nature and organization of adhesins. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 151: 55–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Jones, G.W. and R.E. Isaacson. 1983. Proteinaceous bacterial adhesins and their receptors. Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 10: 229–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Jerse, A.E. and J.B. Kaper. 1991. The eae gene of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli encodes a 94-kilodalton membrane protein, the expression of which is influenced by the EAF plasmid. Infect. Immun. 59: 4302–4309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Jerse, A.E., J. Yu, B.D. Tall, and J.B. Kaper. 1990. A genetic locus of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli necessary for the production of attaching and effacing lesions on tissue culture cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87: 7839–7843.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Jonsson, A.B., G. Nyberg, and S. Normark. 1991. Phase variation of gonococcal pili by frameshift mutation in pilC, a novel gene pilus assembly. EMBO J. 10: 477–488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Kar, S., S.C.-M. To, and C.C. Brinton, Jr. 1990. Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of LKP pilus genes from a nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae strain. Infect. Immun. 58: 903–908.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Karjalainen, T.K., D.G. Evans, D.J. Evans, Jr., D.Y. Graham, and C.-H. Lee. 1991. Iron represses the expression of CFA/I fimbriae of enterotoxigenic E. coli. Microb. Pathogen. 11: 317–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Karr, J., B. Nowicki, L. Truong, R. Hull, J. Moulds, and S. Hull. 1990. pap-2-encoded fimbriae adhere to the P blood group O related glycosphingolipid stage-specific embryonic antigen 4 in the human kidney. Infect. Immun. 58: 4055–4062.Google Scholar
  134. Kawula, T.H., E.L. Aho, D.S. Barritt, D.G. Klapper, and J.G. Cannon. 1988. Reversible phase variation of expression of Neisseria meningitides class 5 outer membrane proteins and their relationship to gonococcal proteins II. Infect. Immun. 56: 380–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Kehoe, M., R. Sellwood, P. Shipley, and G. Dougan. 1981. Genetic analysis of K88-mediated adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Nature 291: 122–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Kehoe, M., M. Winther, and G. Dougan. 1983. Expression of a cloned K88ac adhesion antigen determinant: identification of a new adhesion cistron and role of a vector-encoded promoter. J. Bacteriol. 155: 1071–1077.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Kehoe, M.A., T.P. Poirer, E.H. Beachey, and K.N. Timmis. 1985. Cloning and genetic analysis of serotype 5 M protein determinant of group A streptococci: evidence for multiple copies of the M5 determinant in the Streptococcus pyogenes genome. Infect. Immun. 48: 190–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Keith, B.R., L. Maurer, P.A. Spears, and P.E. Orndorff. 1986. Receptor-binding function of type I pili effects bladder colonization by a clinical isolate of Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 53: 693–696.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Kellogg, D.S., Jr., W.L. Peacock, Jr., W.E. Deacon, L. Brown, and C.I. Pirkle. 1963. Neisseria gonorrhoeae. I. Virulence genetically linked to colonial variation. J. Bacteriol. 85: 1274–1279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Kist, M.L., I.E. Salit, and T. Hofmann. 1990. Purification and characterization of the Dr hemagglutinins expressed by two uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. Infect. Immun. 58: 695–702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Klaasen, P., M.J. Woodward, F.G. van Zijderveld, and F.K. De Graaf. 1990. The 987P gene cluster in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli contains an STpa transposon that activates 987P expression. Infect. Immun. 58: 801–807.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Klemm, P. 1984. The fimA gene encoding the type-1 fimbrial subunit of Escherichia coli nucleotide sequence and primary structure of the protein. Eur. J. Biochem. 143: 395–399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Klemm, P. 1985. Fimbrial adhesins of Escherichia coli. Rev. Infect. Dis. 7: 321–340.Google Scholar
  144. Klemm, P. 1986. Two regulatory fim genes, fimB and fimE, control the phase variation of type 1 fimbriae in Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 5: 1389–1393.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Klemm, P. and G. Christiansen. 1987. Three fim genes required for the regulation of length and mediation of adhesion of Escherichia coli type 1 fimbriae. Mol. Gen. Genet. 208: 439–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Klemm, P., I. Orskov, and F. Orskov. 1982. F7 and type- 1-like fimbriae from three Escherichia coli strains isolated from urinary tract infections: protein chemical and immunological aspects. Infect. Immun. 36: 462–468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Klemm, P., B.J. Jorgensen, I. Van Die, H. De Ree, and H. Bergmans. 1985. The fim genes responsible for synthesis of type 1 fimbriae in Escherichia coli, cloning and genetic organization. Mol. General Genet. 199: 410–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Klemm, P., W. Gaastra, M.M. McConnell, and H.R. Smith. 1989. The CS2 fimbrial antigen from Escherichia coli, purification, characterization and partial covalent structure. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 26: 207–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Knutton, S., A. Phillips, H. Smith, R. Gross, R. Shaw, P. Watson, and E. Price. 1991. Screening for enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in infants with diarrhea by the fluorescent-acting staining test. Infect. Immun. 59: 365–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Korhonen, T.K., K. Lounatmaa, H. Ranta, and N. Kuush. 1980. Characterization of type 1 pili of Salmonella typhimurium LT2. J. Bacteriol. 144: 800–805.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Kornhonen, T.K., H. Leffler, and C. Svanborg-Eden. 1981. Binding specificity of piliated strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium to epithelial cells, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, and erythrocytes. Infect. Immun. 32: 796–804.Google Scholar
  152. Korth, M., R. Schneider, and S. Moseley. 1991. An F41–K88-related genetic determinant of bovine septicemic Escherichia coli mediates expression of CS31A fimbriae and adherence to epithelial cells. Infect. Immun. 59: 2333–2340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Krogfelt, K.A. and P. Klemm. 1988. Investigation of minor components of Escherichia coli type 1 fimbriae: protein, chemical and immunological aspects. Microb. Pathogen. 4: 231–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Krogfelt, K.A., H. Bergmans, and P. Klemm. 1990. Direct evidence that the Fim H protein is the mannose-specific adhesin of Escherichia coli type 1 fimbriae. Infect. Immun. 58: 1995–1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Kröncke, K.D., I. Orskov, F. Orskov, B. Jann, and K. Jann. 1990. Electron microscopic study of coexpression of adhesive protein capsules and polysaccharide capsules in Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 58: 2710–2714.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Kuehn, M.J., S. Normark, and S.J. Hultgren. 1991. Immunoglobulin-like Pap D chaperone caps and uncaps interactive surface of nascently translocated pilus subunits. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88: 10586–10590.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Labigne-Roussel, A. and S. Falkow. 1988. Distribution and degree of heterogeneity of the afimbrial-adhesin-encoding operon (afa) among uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates. Infect. Immun. 56: 640–648.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Labigne-Roussel, A., D. Lark, G. Schoolnik, and S. Falkow. 1984. Cloning and expression of an afrimbrial adhesin (Afal) responsible for blood group-independent, mannoseresistant hemagglutination from a pyelonephritic Escherichia coli strain. Infect. Immun. 46: 251–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Labigne-Roussel, A., M.A. Schmidt, W. Walz, and S. Falkow. 1985. Genetic organization of the afimbrial adhesin operon and nucleotide sequence from a uropathogenic Escherichia coli gene encoding an afimbrial adhesin. J. Bacteriol. 162: 1285–1292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Lambden, P.R. 1982. Biochemical comparison of pili from variants of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J. Gen. Microbiol. 128: 2105–2111.Google Scholar
  161. Lambden, P.R., J.E. Heckels, L.T. James, and P.J. Watt. 1979. Variations in surface protein composition associated with virulence properties in opacity types of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J. Gen. Microbiol. 114: 305–312.Google Scholar
  162. Lambden, P.R., J.N. Robertson, and P.J. Watt. 1980. Biological properties of two distinct pilus types produced by isogenic variants of Neisseria gonorrhoeae P9. J. Bacteriol. 141: 393–396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Lambden, P.R., J.E. Heckel, H. McBride, and P.J. Watt. 1981. The identification and isolation of novel pilus types produced by variants of Neisseria gonorrhoeae P9 following selection in vivo. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 10: 339–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Langermann, S. and A. Wright. 1990. Molecular analysis of the Haemophilus influenzae type b pili gene. Mol. Microbiol. 4: 221–230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Lanser, J.A. and P.A. Anargyros. 1985. Detection of Escherichia coli adhesins with DNA probes. J. Clin. Microbiol. 22: 425–427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Leffler, H. and C. Svanborg-Eden. 1986. Glycolipids as receptors for Escherichia coli lectins or adhesins. In: D. Mirelman (ed.), MicrobialLectins and Agglutinins: Properties and Biological Activity. Wiley-Interscience, Orlando, pp. 83–111.Google Scholar
  167. Lindberg, F.P., B. Lund, and S. Normark. 1984. Genes of pyelonephritogenic E. coli required for digalactoside-specific agglutination of human cells. EMBO J. 3: 1167–1173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Lindberg, F., B. Lund, and S. Normark. 1986. Gene products specifying adhesion of uropathogenic Escherichia coli are minor components of pili. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83: 1891–1895.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Lindberg, F., B. Lund, L. Johansson, and S. Normark. 1987. Localization of the receptor-binding protein adhesin at the tip of the bacterial pilus. Nature 328: 84–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Lindberg, F., J.M. Tennent, S.J. Hultgren, B. Lund, and S. Normark. 1989. Pap D, a periplasmic transport protein in P-pilus biogenesis. J. Bacteriol. 171: 6052–6058.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Lindstedt, R., N. Baker, P. Falk, R. Hull, S. Hull, J. Karr, H. Leffler, C. SvanborgEden, and G. Larson. 1989. Binding specificities of wild-type and cloned Escherichia coli strains that recognize globo-A. Infect. Immun. 57: 3389–3394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Lintermans, P., P. Pohl, F. Deboeck, A. Bertels, C. Schlicker, J. Vandekerckhove, J. Van Damme, M. Van Montagu, and H. DeGreve. 1988. Isolation and nucleotide sequence of the F17-A gene encoding the structural protein of the F17 fimbriae in bovine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 56: 1475–1484.Google Scholar
  173. Lowe, M.A., S.C. Holt, and B.I. Eisenstein. 1987. Immunoelectron microscopic analysis of elongation of type 1 fimbriae in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 169: 157–163.Google Scholar
  174. Lund, B., F. Lindberg, B.I. Marklund, and S. Normark. 1987. The PapG protein is the a-n-galactopyranosyl-(1-*4)-ß-n-galactopyranose-binding adhesin of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84: 5898–5902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Lund, B., B.I. Marklund, N. Stromberg, F. Lindbert, K.A. Karlsson, and S. Normark. 1988a. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli can express serologically identical pili of different receptor binding specificitites. Mol. Microbiol. 2: 255–263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Lund, B., F. Lindberg, and S. Normark. 1988b. The structure and antigenic properties of the tip-located P-pilus proteins of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 170: 1887–1894.Google Scholar
  177. Manning, P.A., K.N. Timmis, and G. Stevenson. 1985. Colonization factor antigen II (CFA/II) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: molecular cloning of the CS3 determinant. Mol. Genet. 200: 322–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Marre, R., B. Kreft, and J. Hacker. 1990. Genetically engineered S and F1C fimbriae differ in their contribution to adherence of Escherichia coli to cultured renal tubular cells. Infect. Immun. 58: 3434–3437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Mans, C.F., G. Schoolnik, J.M. Koomey, J. Hardy, J. Rothbard, and S. Falkow. 1985. Cloning and sequencing of a Moraxella bovis pilin gene. J. Bacteriol. 163: 132–139.Google Scholar
  180. Marrs, C.F., W.W. Ruehl, G.K. Schoolnik, and S. Falkow. 1988. Pilin gene variation of Moraxella bovis is caused by an inversion of the pilin genes. J. Bacteriol. 170: 3032–3039.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Mattei, D., F. Pichot, J. Bellalou, O. Mercereau-Puijalon, and A. Ullmann. 1986. Molecular cloning of a coding sequence of Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin gene. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 37: 73–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Maurer, L. and P.E. Orndorff. 1985. A new locus, pilE, required for the binding of type 1 piliated Escherichia coli to erythrocytes. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 30: 59–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Maurer, L. and P.E. Orndorff. 1987. Identification and characterization of genes determining receptor binding and pilus length of Escherichia coli type 1 pili. J. Bacteriol. 169: 640–645.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. May, G., P. Dersch, M. Haardt, A. Middendorf, and E. Bremer. 1990. The osmZ(bglY) genes encodes the DNA-binding protein H-NS (H la), a component of the Escherichia coli K12 nucleoid. Mol. Gen. Genet. 224: 81–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. McConnell, M.M. L.V. Thomas, G.A. Willshaw, H.R. Smith, and B. Rowe. 1988. Genetic control and properties of coli surface antigens of colonization factor IV (PCF 8775) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 56: 1974–1980.Google Scholar
  186. McGee, Z.A., D.S. Stephens, L.H. Hoffman, W.F. Schlech, and R.G. Horn. 1983. Mechanisms of mucosal invasion by pathogenic Neisseria. Rev. Infect. Dis. 5: S708 - S714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. McLain, M., I. Blomfield, and B.I. Eisenstein. 1991. Roles of fimB and fimE in site specific DNA inversion associated with phase variation of type 1 fimbriae in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 173: 5308–5314.Google Scholar
  188. Meyer, T.F. 1990. Variation of pilin and opacity-associated protein in pathogenic Neisseria species. In: Iglewski, B.H. and V.L. Clarks (eds.), Molecular Basis of Bacterial Pathogenesis. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 137–153.Google Scholar
  189. Meyer, T.F., N. Mlawer, and M. So. 1982. Pilus expression in Neisseria gonorrhoeae involves chromosomal rearrangement. Cell 30: 45–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Meyer, T.F., E. Billyard, R. Haas, S. Storzbach, and M. So. 1984. Pilus genes of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: chromosomal organization and DNA sequence. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 6110–6114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Miller, V.L. and S. Falkow. 1988. Evidence for two genetic loci in Yersinia enterocolitica that can promote invasion of epithelial cells. Infect. Immun. 56: 1242–1248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Miller, V.L., J.J. Farmer III, W.E. Hill, and S. Falkow. 1989. The ail locus is found uniquely in Yersinia enterocolitica serotypes commonly associated with disease. Infect. Immun. 57: 121–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Miller, V.L., J.B. Bliska, and S. Falkow. 1990. Nucleotide sequence of the Yersinia enterocolitica ail gene and characterization of the Ail protein product. J. Bacteriol. 172: 1062–1069.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Minion, F.C., S.N. Abraham, E.H. Beachey, and J.D. Goguen. 1986. The genetic determinant of adhesive function in type 1 fimbriae of Escherichia coli is distinct from the gene encoding the fimbrial subunit. J. Bacteriol. 165: 1033–1036.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Mirelman, D. and I. Ofek. 1986. Introduction to microbial lectins and aglutinins. In: Mirelman, D. (ed.), Microbial Lectins and Agglutinins: Properties and Biological Activity. Wiley-Interscience, New York, pp. 1–19.Google Scholar
  196. Mobley, H.L., G.R. Chippendale, J.H. Tenney, R.A. Hull, and J.W. Warren. 1987. Expression of type 1 fimbriae may be required for persistence of Escherichia coli in the catherized urinary tract. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 2253–2257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Moch, T., H. Hoschützky, J. Hacker, K.D. Kröncke, and K. Jann. 1987. Isolation and characterization of the a-sialyl beta-2,3-galactosyl-specific adhesin from fimbriated Escherichia coli. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84: 3462–3466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Mooi, F.R. and F.K. DeGraaf. 1985. Molecular biology of fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 118: 119–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Mooi, F.R., F.K. DeGraaf, and J.D. van Embden. 1979. Cloning, mapping, and expression of the genetic determinant that encodes for the K88ab antigen. Nucleic Acids Res. 6: 849–865.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Mooi, F.R., N. Harms, D. Bakker, and F.K. DeGraaf. 1981. Organization and expression of genes involved in the production of the K88ab antigen. Infect. Immun. 32: 1155–1163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Mooi, F.R., C. Wouters, A. Wijfjes, and F.K. DeGraaf. 1982. Construction and characterization of mutants impaired in the biosynthesis of the K88ab antigen. J. Bacteriol. 150: 512–521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Mooi, F.R., A. Wijfjes, and F.J. DeGraaf. 1983. Identification and characterization of precursors in the biosynthesis of the K88ab fimbria of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 154: 41–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Mooi, F.R., M. van Buuren, G. Koopman, B. Roosendaal, and F.K. DeGraaf. 1984. A K88ab gene of Escherichia coli encodes a fimbria-like protein distinct from the K88ab fimbrial adhesin. J. Bacteriol. 159: 482–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Mooi, F.R., I. Claassen, D. Bakker, H. Kuipers, and F.K. DeGraaf. 1986. Regulation and structure of an Escherichia coli gene coding for an outer membrane protein involved in export of the K88ab fimbrial subunits. Nucleic Acids Res. 14: 2443–2457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Moon, H. 1990. Colonization factor antigens of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in animals. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immun. 151: 147–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Morschhauser, J., H. Hoschutsky, K. Jann, and J. Hacker, 1990. Functional analysis of the sialic acid binding adhesin Sfa S of pathogenic Escherichia coli by site-specific mutagenesis. Infect. Immun. 58: 2133–2138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Morrissey, P.M. and G. Dougan. 1986. Expression of a cloned 987P adhesion-antigen fimbrial determinant in Escherichia coli K-12 strain HB101. Gene 43: 79–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Moseley, S.L., G. Dougan, R.A. Schneider, and H.W. Moon. 1986. Cloning of chromosomal DNA encoding the F41 adhesin of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and genetic homology between adhesins F41 and K88. J. Bacteriol. 167: 799–804.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Mouw, A.R., E.H. Beachey, and V. Burdett. 1988. Molecular evolution of streptococcal M protein: cloning and nucleotide sequence of the type 24 M protein gene and relation to other genes of Streptococcus pyogenes. J. Bacteriol. 170: 676–684.Google Scholar
  210. Muir, L.L., R.A. Strugnell, and J.K. Davis. 1988. Proteins that appear to be associated with pili in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Infect. Immun. 56: 1743–1747.Google Scholar
  211. Mullany, P., A.M. Field, M.M. McConnell, S.M. Scotland, H.R. Smith, and B. Rowe. 1983. Expression of plasmids coding for colonization factor antigen II (CFA/II) and enterotoxin production in Escherichia coli. J. Gen. Microbiol. 129: 3591–3601.Google Scholar
  212. Muralidharan, K., A. Stern, and T.F. Meyer. 1987. The control mechanism of opacity protein expression in the pathogenic neisseriae. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 53: 435–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Nicholson, I.J., A.C.F. Perry, M. Virji, J.E. Heckels, and J.R. Saunders. 1987. Localization of antibody-binding sites by sequence analysis of cloned pilin genes from Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J. Gen. Microbiol. 133: 825–833.Google Scholar
  214. Norgren, M., S. Normark, D. Lark, P. O’Hanley, G. Schoolnik, S. Falkow, C. SvanborgEden, M. Baga, and B.E. Uhlin. 1984. Mutations in E. coli cistrons affecting adhesion to human cells do not abolish Pap pili fiber formation. EMBO J. 3: 1159–1165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Norgren, M., M. Baga, J. Tennent, and S. Normark. 1987. Nucleotide sequence, regulation and functional analysis of the papC gene required for cell surface localization of Pap pili of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 1: 169–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Norlander, L., J. Davies, A. Norqvist, and S. Normark. 1979. Genetic basis for colonial variation in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J. Bacteriol. 138: 762–769.Google Scholar
  217. Normark, S., D. Lark and R. Hull. 1983. Genetics of digalactoside-binding adhesin from a uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain. Infect. Immun. 41: 942–949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Nowicki, B., M. Rhen, V. Vaisanen-Rhen, A. Pere, and T.K. Korhonen. 1985. Kinetics of phase variation between S and type 1 fimbriae of Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 28: 237–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Nowicki, B., J. Vuopio-Varkila, P. Viljanen, T.K. Korhonen, and P.H. Makela. 1986. Fimbrial phase variation and systemic Escherichia coli infection studied in the mouse peritonitis model. Microb. Pathogen. 1: 335–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Nowicki, B., J.P. Banish, T. Korhonen, R.A. Hull, and S.I. Hull. 1987. Molecular cloning of the Escherichia coli 075X adhesin. Infect. Immun. 55: 3168–3173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Nowicki, B., J. Moulds, R. Hull, and S. Hull. 1988. A hemagglutinin of uropathogenic Escherichia coli recognizes the Dr blood group antigen. Infect. Immun. 56: 1057–1060.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Nowicki, B., C. Svanborg-Eden, R. Hull, and S. Hull. 1989. Molecular analysis and epidemiology of the Dr hemagglutinin of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 57: 446–451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Nowicki, B., A. Labigne, S. Moseley, R. Hull, S. Hull, and J. Moulds. 1990. The Dr hemagglutinin, afimbrial adhesins AFA-1 and AFA-III, and F1845 fimbriae of uropathogenic and diarrhea-associated Escherichia coli belong to a family of hemagglutinins with Dr receptor recognition. Infect. Immun. 58: 279–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Nunn, D., S. Bergman, and S. Lory. 1990. Products of three accessory genes, piB, pilC and pilD, are required for biogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pili. J. Bacteriol. 172: 2911–2919.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Ofek, I., E.H. Beachey, and A.L. Bisno. 1974. Resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to phagocytosis: relationship to colonial morphology and surface pili. J. Infect. Dis. 129: 310–316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Ono, E., M.F. Lavin, and M. Naiki. 1991. The nucleotide sequence of the genes, fanE and fanF, of Escherichia coli K99 fimbriae. Jpn. J. Vet. Res. 39: 1–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Orndorff, P.E. and S. Falkow. 1984a. Organization and expression of genes responsible for type 1 piliation in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 159: 736–744.Google Scholar
  228. Orndorff, P.E. and S. Falkow. 1984b. Identification and characterization of a gene product that regulates type 1 piliation in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 160: 61–66.Google Scholar
  229. Orndorff, P.E., P.A. Spears, D. Schauer, and S. Falkow. 1985. Two modes of control of pilA, the gene encoding type 1 pilin in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 164: 321–330.Google Scholar
  230. Orskov, I. and F. Orskov. 1990. Serological classification of fimbriae. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immun. 151: 71–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Orskov, I., A. Birch Anderson, J.P. Duguid, J. Stenderup, and F. Orskov. 1985. An adhesive protein capsule of Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 47: 191–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Ott, M., T. Schmoll, W. Goebel, I. Van Die, and J. Hacker. 1987. Comparison of the genetic determinant coding for the S-fimbrial adhesin (sfa) of Escherichia coli to other chromosomally encoded fimbrial determinants. Infect. Immun. 55: 1940–1943.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Oudega, B. and F.K. DeGraaf. 1988. Genetic organization and biogenesis of adhesive fimbriae of Escherichia coli. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 54: 285–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Paerregaard, A., F. Espersen, and M. Skurnik. 1991. Role of the Yersinia outer membrane protein YadA in adhesion to rabbit intestinal tissue and rabbit intestinal brush border membrane vesicles. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Immunol. Scand. 99: 226–232.Google Scholar
  235. Pallesen, L., O. Madsen, and P. Klemm. 1989. Regulation of the phase switch controlling expression of type 1 fimbriae in Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 3: 925–931.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Paranchych, W. 1990. Molecular studies on N-methylphenylalanine pili. In: Iglewski, B.H. and V.L. Clark (eds.), The Bacteria, Vol. XI. Molecular Basis of Bacterial Pathogenesis. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 61–78.Google Scholar
  237. Patel, P., C.F. Marrs, J.S. Mattick, W.W. Ruehl, R.K. Taylor, and M. Koomey. 1991. Shared antigenicity and immunogenicity of type 4 pilins expressed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Moraxella bovis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Dichelobacter nodosus, and Vibrio cholerae. Infect. Immun. 59: 4674–4676.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Pearce, W.A. and T.M. Buchanan. 1978. Attachment role of gonococcal pili. Optimum conditions and quantitation of adherence of isolated pili to human cells in vitro. J. Clin. Invest. 61: 931–943.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Penaranda, M.E., D.G. Evans, B.E. Murray, and D.J. Evans, Jr. 1983. ST:LT:CFA/II plasmids in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli belonging to serogroups 06, 08, 085a, and 0139. J. Bacteriol. 154: 980–983.Google Scholar
  240. Perry, A.C.F., I.J. Nicolson, and J.R. Saunders. 1988. Neisseria meningitidis strain C114 contains silent, truncated pilin genes that are homologous to Neisseria gonorrhoeae pil sequences. J. Bacteriol. 170: 1691–1697.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Plos, K., T. Carter, S. Hull, R. Hull, and C. Svanborg-Eden. 1990. Frequency and organization of pap homologous DNA in relation to clinical origin of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. J. Infect. Dis. 161: 518–524.Google Scholar
  242. Ponniah, S., R.O. Endres, D.L. Hasty, and S.N. Abraham. 1991. Fragmentation of Escherichia coli type 1 fimbriae exposes cryptic D-mannose-binding sites. 1991. J. Bacteriol. 173: 4195–4202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Purcell, B.K. and S. Clegg. 1983. Construction and expression of recombinant plasmids encoding type 1 fimbriae of a urinary Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate. Infect. Immun. 39: 1122–1127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Relman, D.A., M. Domenighini, E. Tuomanen, R. Rappuoli, and S. Falkow. 1989. Filamentous hemagglutinin of Bordetella pertussis: nucleotide sequence and crucial role in adherence. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86: 2637–2641.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Rest, R.F., S.H. Fischer, Z.Z. Inghaum, and J.F. Jones. 1982. Interactions of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with human neutrophils: effects of serum and gonococcal opacity on phagocyte killing and chemiluminescence. Infect. Immun. 36: 737–744.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Rhen, M., J. Knowles, M.E. Penttila, M. Sarvas, and T.K. Korhonen. 1983a. P-fimbriae of Escherichia coli: molecular cloning of DNA fragments containing the structural genes. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 19: 119–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Rhen, M., P.H. Makela, and T.K. Korhonen. 1983b. P-fimbriae of Escherichia coli are subject to phase variation. FEMS Microbiol: Lett. 19: 267–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Rhen, M., I. Van Die, V. Rhen, and H. Bergmans 1985a. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence of the genes encoding the KS71A and F7 fimbrial antigens of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Eur. J. Biochem. 151: 573–577.Google Scholar
  249. Rhen, M., V. Vaisanen-Rhen, A. Pere, and T.K. Korhonen. 1985b. Complementation and regulatory interaction between two cloned fimbrial gene clusters of Escherichia coli strain KS71. Mol. Gen. Genet. 200: 60–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Rhen, M., P. Klemm, and T.K. Korhonen. 1986a. Identification of two hemagglutinins of Escherichia coli, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-specific fimbriae and a blood group M-specific agglutinin, by cloning the corresponding gene in Escherichia coli K-12. J. Bacteriol. 168: 1234–1242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Rhen, M., V. Vaisanen-Rhen, M. Saraste, and T.K. Korhonen. 1986b. Organization of genes expressing the blood-group-M-specific hemagglutinin of Escherichia coli: identification and nucleotide sequence of the M-agglutinin subunit gene. Gene 49: 351–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Riegman, N., I. Van Die, J. Leunissen, W. Hoekstra, and H. Bergmans. 1988. Biogenesis of F7, and F72 fimbriae of uropathogenic Escherichia coli: influence of the FsoF and FsoG proteins and localization of the Fso/FstkE protein. Mol. Microbiol. 2: 73–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Riegman, N., R. Kusters, H. Van Veggel, H. Bergmans, P.V.B.E. Henegouwen, J. Hacker, and I Van Die. 1990. F1C fimbriae of a uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain: genetic and functional organization of the foc gene cluster and identification of minor subunits. J. Bacteriol. 172: 1114–1120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Roosendaal, E., M. Boots, and F.K. DeGraaf. 1987a. Two novel genes, fanA and fanB, involved in the biogenesis of K99 fimbriae. Nucleic Acids Res. 15: 5973–5984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Roosendaal, E., A.A.C. Jacobs, P. Rathman, C. Sondermeyer, F. Stegehuis, B. Oudega and F.K. DeGraaf. 1987b. Primary structure and subcellular localization of two fimbrial subunit-like proteins involved in the biosynthesis of K99 fimbrillae. Mol. Microbiol. 1: 211–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Roosendaal, B., J. Damoiseaux, W. Jordi, and F.K. DeGraaf. 1989. Transcriptional organization of the DNA region controlling expression of the K99 gene cluster. Mol. Gen. Genet. 215: 250–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Rosan, B., C.T. Baker, G.M. Nelson, R. Berman, R.J. Lamont, and D.R. Demuth. 1989. Cloning and expression of an adhesin antigen of Streptococcus sanguis G9B in Escherichia coli. J. Gen. Microbiol. 135: 531–538.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Rothbard, J.B., R. Fernandez, L. Wang, N.N.H. Teng, and G.K. Schoolnik. 1985. Antibodies to peptides corresponding to a conserved sequence of gonococcal pilins block bacterial adhesion. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82: 915–919.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Russell, R.R.B., D. Coleman, and G. Dougan. 1985. Expression of a gene for glucanbinding protein from Streptococcus mutans in Escherichia coli. J. Gen. Microbiol. 131: 295–299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Salit, I.E. and E.C. Gotschlich. 1977. Hemagglutination by purified type 1 Escherichia coli pili. J. Exp. Med. 146: 295–299.Google Scholar
  261. Schaper, U., J.S. Chapman, and P.C. Hu. 1987. Preliminary indication of unusual codon usage in the DNA coding sequence of the attachment protein of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Isr. J. Med. Sci. 23: 361–367.Google Scholar
  262. Schifferli, D.M., E.H. Beachey, and R.K. Taylor. 1990. The 987P fimbrial gene cluster of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli is plasmid encoded. Infect. Immun. 58: 149–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Schmoll, T.H. Hoschützky, J. Morschhauser, F. Lottspeich, and K. Jann. 1989. Analysis of genes coding for the sialic acid-binding adhesin and two other minor fimbrial subunits of the S fimbrial adhesin determinant of Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 3: 1735–1744.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Schneider, K. and C.F. Beck. 1986. Promoter probe vectors for the analysis of divergently arranged promoters. Gene 42: 37–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Schoolnik, G.K., R. Fernandez, J.Y. Tai, J. Rothbard, and E.C. Gotschlich. 1984. Gonococcal pili: primary structure and receptor binding domain. J. Exp. Med. 159: 1351–1370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Schwalbe, R.S. and J.G. Cannon. 1986. Genetic transformation of genes for protein II in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J. Bacteriol. 167: 186–190.Google Scholar
  267. Schwalbe, R.S., P.F. Sparling, and J.G. Cannon. 1985. Variation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae protein II among isolates from an outbreak caused by a single gonococcal strain. Infect. Immun. 49: 250–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Scott, J.R. and V.A. Fischetti. 1983. Expression of streptococcal M protein in Escherichia coli. Science 221: 758–760.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Seifert, H. and M. So. 1988. Genetic mechanisms of bacterial antigenic variation. Microbiol. Rev. 52: 327–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Sharon, N. and I. Ofek. 1986. Mannose-specific bacterial surface lectins. In: Mirelman, D. (ed.), Microbial Lectins and Agglutinins: Properties and Biological Activity. WileyInterscience, New York, pp. 55–81.Google Scholar
  271. Shaw, C.E. and R.K. Taylor. 1990. Vibrio cholerae 0395 tcpA pilin gene sequence and comparison of predicted protein structural features to those of type 4 pilins. Infect. Immun. 58: 3042–3049.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Shaw, C.E., K.M. Peterson, J.J. Mekalanos, and R.K. Taylor. 1990. Genetic studies of Vibrio cholerae TCP pilus biogenesis. Adv. Res. Cholera Related Diarrheas 7: 51–58.Google Scholar
  273. Shipley, P.L., C.L. Gyles, and S. Falkow. 1978. Characterization of plasmids that encode for the K88 colonization antigen. Infect. Immun. 20: 559–566.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Shipley, P.L., G. Dougan, and S. Falkow. 1981. Identification and cloning of the genetic determinant that encodes for the K88ac adherence antigen. J. Bacteriol. 145: 920–925.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Sjöberg, P., M. Lindahl, J. Porath, and T. Wadstrom. 1988. Purification and characterization of CS2, a sialic acid-specific haemagglutinin of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Biochem. J. 255: 105–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Smith, H.W. and M.A. Linggood. 1972. Further observations on Escherichia coli enterotoxins with particular regard to those produced by atypical piglet strains and by calf and lamb strains. The transmissible nature of these enterotoxins and of a K antigen possessed by calf and lamb strains. J. Med. Microbiol. 5: 243–250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Smith, H.R., S.M. Scotland, and B. Rowe. 1983. Plasmids that encode for production of colonization factor antigen II and enterotoxin production in strains of Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 40: 1236–1239.Google Scholar
  278. Smyth, C.J. 1982. Two mannose-resistant haemagglutinins on enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli or serotype 06:KI5:H16 or H-isolated from travellers’ and infantile diarrhoea. J. Gen. Microbiol. 128: 2081–2096.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. So, M., J.F. Crandall, J.H. Crosa, and S. Falkow. 1974. Extrachromosomal determinants which contribute to bacterial pathogenicity. In: Schlessinger, D. (ed.), Microbiology-1974. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, pp. 16–20.Google Scholar
  280. Sommer, P., T. Bruyere, J.A. Ogier, J.M. Gamier, J.M. Jeltsch, and J.P. Klein. 1987. Cloning of the saliva-interacting protein gene from Streptococcus mutans. J. Bacteriol. 169: 5167–5173.Google Scholar
  281. Spanier, J.G., S.J.C. Jones, and P. Cleary. 1984. Small DNA deletions creating avirulence in Streptococcus pyogenes. Science 225: 935–938.Google Scholar
  282. Stern, A. and T.F. Meyer. 1987. Common mechanism controlling phase and antigenic variation in pathogenic neisseriae. Mol. Microbiol. 1: 5–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Stern, A., P. Nickel, T.F. Meyer, and M. So. 1984. Opacity determinants of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: gene expression and chromosomal linkage to the gonococcal pilus gene. Cell 37: 447–456.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Stern, A., M. Brown, P. Nickel, and T.F. Meyer. 1986. Opacity genes in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: control of phase and antigenic variation. Cell 47: 61–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Stibitz, S., A.A. Weiss, and S. Falkow. 1988. Genetic analysis of a region of the Bordetella pertussis chromosome encoding filamentous hemagglutinin and the pleiotropic regulatory locus vir. J. Bacteriol. 170: 2904–2913.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Strosberg, A.D., D. Buffard, M. Lauwereys, and A. Foriers. 1986. Legume lectins: a large family of homologous proteins. In: Liener, I., N. Sharon and I.J. Goldstein (eds.), The Lectins, Properties, Functions and Applications in Biology and Medicine. Academic Press, Orlando, pp. 249–264.Google Scholar
  287. Su, C., V.V. Tryon, and J.B. Baseman. 1987. Cloning and sequence analysis of cytadhesin Pl gene from Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Infect. Immun. 55: 3023–3029.Google Scholar
  288. Su, C.-J., A. Chavoya, and J.B. Baseman. 1988. Regions of Mycoplasma penumoniae cytadhesin P1 structural gene exist as multiple copies. Infect. Immun. 56: 3157–3161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Svennerholm, A.-M., Y.L. Vidal, J. Holmgren, M.M. McConnell, and B. Rowe. 1988. Role of PCF8775 antigen and its coli surface subcomponents for colonization, disease, and protective immunogenicity of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in rabbits. Infect. Immun. 56: 523–528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. Swaney, L.M., Y.P. Liu, C.M. To, C.C. To, K. Ippen-Ihler, and C.C. Brinton, Jr. 1977. Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli phase variants and mutants deficient in type 1 pilus production. J. Bacteriol. 130: 495–505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. Swanson, J. 1980. Adhesion and entry of bacteria into cel Inffs: a model of the pathogenesis of gonorrhea. In: Smith, H., J.J. Skehel, and M.J. Turner (eds.), The Molecular Basis of Microbial Pathogenicity. Verlag Chemi GmbH, Weinheim, Federal Republic of Germany, pp. 17–40.Google Scholar
  292. Swanson, J. 1988. Genetic mechanisms responsible for changes in pilus expression by gonoccocci. UCLA Symp. Mol. Cell. Biol. New Ser. 20: 347–363.Google Scholar
  293. Swanson, J. 1990. Pilus and outer membrane protein II variation in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. In: Ayoub, E.M., G.H. Cassell, W.C. Branche, Jr., and F.J. Henry, (eds.), Microbial Determinants of Virulence and Host Response. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, pp. 197–205.Google Scholar
  294. Swanson, J. and O. Barrera. 1983. Gonococcal pilus subunit size heterogeneity correlates with transitions in colony piliation phenotype, not with changes in colony opacity. J. Exp. Med. 158: 1459–1472.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Swanson, J. and M. Koomey. 1989. Mechanisms of variation of pili outer membrane protein II in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. In: Berg, D.E. and M.M. Howe (eds.), Mobile DNA. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, pp. 743–761.Google Scholar
  296. Swanson, J., S.J. Kraus, and E.C. Gotschlich. 1971. Studies on gonococcus infection. I. Pili and zones of adhesion: their relation to gonococcal growth patterns. J. Exp. Med. 134: 886–906.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. Swanson, J., S. Bergstrom, K. Robbins, O. Barrera, D. Corwin and J.M. Koomey. 1986. Gene conversion involving the pilin structural gene correlates with pilus+ pilus changes in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Cell 47: 267–276.Google Scholar
  298. Swanson, J., K. Robbins, O. Barrera, D. Corwin, J. Boslego, J. Ciak, M. Blake, and J.M. Koomey. 1987. Gonococcal pilin variants in experimental gonorrhea. J. Exp. Med. 165: 1344–1357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. Swanson, T.N., S. Bilge, B. Nowicki, and S.L. Moseley. 1991. Molecular structure of the Dr adhesin: nucleotide sequence and mapping of receptor-binding domain by use of fusion constructs. Infect. Immun. 59: 261–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Taylor, R., C. Shaw, K. Peterson, P. Spears, and J. Mekalanos. 1988. Safe, live Vibrio cholerae vaccines? Vaccine 6: 151–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. Tennent, J.M., S. Hultgren, B.-I. Macklund, K. Forsman, M. Goransson, B.E. Uhlin, and S. Normark. 1990. Genetics of adhesin expression in Escherichia coli. In: Iglewski, B. and V.L. Clark (eds.), The Bacteria, Vol. XI, The Molecular Basis of Bacterial Pathogenesis. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 79–82.Google Scholar
  302. Tennent, J.M., F. Lindberg, and S. Normark, 1990. Integrity of Escherichia coli P pili during biogenesis: properties and role of Pap J. Mol. Microbiol. 4: 747–758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Thomas, L.V., A. Cravioto, S.M. Scotland, and B. Rowe. 1982. New fimbrial antigenic type (E8775) that may represent a colonization factor in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in humans. Infect. Immun. 35: 1119–1124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. Thomas, L.V., M.M. McConnell, B. Rowe, and A.M. Field. 1985. The possession of three novel coli surface antigens by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains positive for the putative colonization factor PCF8775. J. Gen. Microbiol. 131: 2319–2326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. Thomas, L.V., B. Rowe, and M.M. McConnell. 1987. In strains of Escherichia coli 0167 a single plasmid encodes for the coli surface antigens CS5 and CS6 of putative colonization factor PCF8775, heat-stable enterotoxin, and colicin Ia. Infect. Immun. 55: 1929–1931.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. Trevino, L.B., W.G. Haldenwang, and J.B. Baseman. 1986. Expression of Mycoplasma pneumoniae antigens in Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 53: 129–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. Uhlin, B.E., M. Norgren, M. Baga, and S. Normark. 1985. Adhesion to human cells by Escherichia coli lacking the major subunit of a digalactoside-specific pilus-adhesin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82: 1800–1804.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. Van Die, I., C. Van den Hondel, H.J. Hamstra, W. Hoekstra, and H. Bergmans. 1983. Studies on the fimbriae of an Escherichia coli 06:K2:Hl:F7 strain: molecular cloning of a DNA fragment encoding a fimbrial antigen responsible for mannose-resistant hemagglutination of human erythrocytes. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 19: 77–82.Google Scholar
  309. Van Die, I., B. Van Geffen, W. Hoekstra, and H. Bergmans. 1984a. Type 1C fimbriae of a uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain: cloning and characterization of the genes involved in the expression of the 1C antigen and nucleotide sequence of the subunit gene. Gene 34: 187–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. Van Die, I., I. Van Megen, W. Hoekstra, and H. Bergmans. 1984b. Molecular organization of the genes involved in the production of F72 fimbriae, causing mannose-resistant hemagglutination, of a uropathogenic Eshcerichia coli 06:K2:H1:F7 strain. Mol. Gen. Genet. 194: 528–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. Van Die, I., G. Spierings, I. Van Megen, E. Zuidweg, W. Hoekstra, and H. Bergmans. 1985a. Cloning and genetic organization of the gene cluster encoding F7, fimbriae of a uropathogenic Escherichia coli and comparison with the F72 gene cluster. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 28: 329–334.Google Scholar
  312. Van Die, I., B. van Geffen, W. Hoekstra, and H. Bergmans. 1985b. Type 1C fimbriae of a uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain: cloning and characterization of the genes involved in the expression of the 1C antigen and nucleotide sequence of the subunit gene. Gene 34: 187–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. Van Die, I., W. Hoekstra, and H. Bergmans. 1987. Analysis of the primary structure of P-fimbrillins of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Microb. Pathogen. 3: 149–154.Google Scholar
  314. Van Die, I., N. Riegman, O. Gaykema, I. van Megen, W. Hoekstra, H. Bergmans, H. de Ree, and H. van Bosch. 1988a. Localization of antigenic determinants on P-fimbriae of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 49: 95–100.Google Scholar
  315. Van Die, I., M. Wauben, I. van Megen, H. Bergmans, N. Riegman, W. Hoekstra, P. Pouwels, and B. Enger-Valk. 1988b. Genetic manipulation of major P-fimbrial subunits and consequences for formation of fimbriae. J. Bacteriol. 170: 5870–5876.Google Scholar
  316. Van Die, I., C. Kramer, J. Hacker, H. Bergmans, W. Jongen, and W. Hoekstra. 1991. Nucleotide sequence of the genes coding for minor fimbrial subunits of the FIC fimbriae of Escherichia coli. Res. Microbiol. 142: 653–658.Google Scholar
  317. Van Embden, J.D.A., F.K. DeGraaf, L.M. Schouls, and J.S. Teppema. 1980. Cloning and expression of a deoxyribonucleic acid fragment that encodes for the adhesive antigen K99. Infect. Immun. 29: 1125–1133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. Van Ham, S.M., F.R. Mooi, M.G. Sindhunata, W.R. Maris, and L. van Alphen. 1989. Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of Haemophilus influenzae fimbrial genes established adherence to oropharyngeal epithelial cells. EMBO J. 8: 3535–3540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. Virji, M. and J.S. Everson. 1981. Comparative virulence of opacity variants of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain P9. Infect. Immun. 31: 965–970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. Virji, M. and J.E. Heckels. 1986. The effect of protein II and pili on the interaction of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with human polymorphonuclear leucocytes. J. Gen. Microbiol. 132: 503–512.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  321. Virkola, R., B. Westerlund, H. Holthofer, J. Parkkinen, M. Kekomaki, and T.K. Korhonen. 1988. Binding characteristics of Escherichia coli adhesins in human urinary bladder. Infect. Immun. 56: 2615–2622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. Waalen, K., K. Sletten, L.O. Froholm, V. Vaisanen, and T.K. Korhonen. 1983. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of type i fimbria (pili) of Salmonella typhimurium LT2. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 16: 149–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. Walz, W., A. Schmidt, A. Labigne-Roussel, S. Falkow, and G. Schoolnik. 1985. AFA-1: a cloned afimbrial X-type adhesin from a human pyelonephritic Escherichia coli strain. Eur. J. Biochem. 152: 315–321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. Westerlund, B., I. van Die, C. Kramer, P. Kuusela, H. Holthöfer, A.M. Tarkkanen, R. Virkola, N. Riegman, H. Bergmans, W. Hoekstra, and T.K. Korhonen. 1991. Multifunctional nature of P fimbriae of uropathogenic Escherichia coli: mutations in fsoE and fsoF influence fimbrial binding to renal tubuli and immobilized fibronectin. Mol. Microbiol. 5: 2965–2975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. Willshaw, G.A., H.R. Smith, and R. Rowe. 1983. Cloning of regions encoding colonization factor antigen I and heat-stable enterotoxin in Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol. Leu. 16: 101–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. Willshaw, G.A., H.R. Smith, M.M. McConnell, and B. Rowe. 1985. Expression of cloned plasmid regions encoding colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) in Escherichia coli. Plasmid 13: 8–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. Wolf, M.K. and E.C. Boedeker. 1990. Cloning of the genes for AF/RI pili from rabbit enteroadherent Escherichia coli RDEC-1 and DNA sequence of the major structural subunit. Infect. Immun. 58: 1124–1128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  328. Wolf, M.K., G.P. Andrews, B.D. Tall, M.M. McConnell, M.M. Levine, and E.C. Boedeker. 1989. Characterization of CS4 and CS6 antigenic components of PCF8775, a putative colonization factor complex from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli E8775. Infect. Immun. 57: 164–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  329. Yeung, M.K. and J.O. Cisar. 1988. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of a gene for Actinomyces naeslundii WVU45 type 2 fimbriae. J. Bacteriol. 170: 3803–3809.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. Yeung, M.K. and J.O. Cisar. 1990. Sequence homology between the subunits of two immunologically and functionally distinct types of fimbriae of Actinomyces spp. J. Bacteriol. 172: 2462–2468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. Yeung, M.K., B.M. Chassy, and J.O. Cisar. 1987. Cloning and expression of a type 1 fimbrial subunit of Actinomyces viscosus T14V. J. Bacteriol. 169: 1678–1683.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. Zafriri, D., I. Ofek, R. Adar, M. Pocino, and N. Sharon. 1989. Inhibitory activity of cranberry juice on adherence of type 1 and type P fimbriated Escherichia coli to eucaryotic cells. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33: 92–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. Zak, K., J.L. Diaz, D. Jackson, and J.E. Heckels. 1984. Antigenic variation during infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae: detection of antibodies to surface proteins in sera of patients with gonorrhea. J. Infect. Dis. 149: 166–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall, Inc. 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Itzhak Ofek
    • 1
  • Ronald J. Doyle
    • 2
  1. 1.Tel-AvivIsrael
  2. 2.LouisvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations