The Effect of Agrochemicals on Vector Populations

  • George P. Georghiou


Crop losses due to the action of herbivorous arthropods, parasitic fungi, nematodes, molluscs and noxious weeks have been estimated to represent at least one third of production (Cramer 1967). Losses from insects alone were stated to be from as low as 12% of potential production (Anonymous 1974) to several times that much (Pimentel et al. 1978). Since modern plant protection chemicals offer the most practical means of reducing crop losses, they are being used extensively throughout the world, and it is expected that demand for these will continue to rise as developing countries strive to increase their agricultural production and to improve their economic standards. The world market for pesticides in 1985 was estimated at $13,778 million and was expected to increase to $15,759 million by 1990 (Table 7.1) (Anonymous 1985).


Insecticide Resistance Mosquito Population Vector Population Methyl Parathion Carbamate Insecticide 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Anonymous. 1974. A Hungry World: The Challenge to Agriculture. Summary Report by University of California Food Task Force. Division of Agric. Sciences, Univ. of Calif., Berkeley 68 pp.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anonymous. 1980. Report on the WHO Technical Visit on Vector Biology and Control to the People’s Republic of China. WHO mimeo. CHN/VBC/001, 47 pp.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anonymous. 1985. A look at world pesticide markets. Farm Chemicals 148: 26–34.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anonymous. 1987. Report of Seventh Meeting, WHO/FAO/UNEP Panel of Experts on Environmental Management for Vector Control (PEEM), World Health Organization, VBC/87.2,72 pp.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ariaratnam, V. and G. P. Georghiou. 1971. Selection for resistance to carbamate and organophos-phorus insecticides in Anopheles albimanus. Nature 232: 642–644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ariaratnam, V. and G. P. Georghiou. 1974. Carbamate resistance m Anopheles albimanus cross resistance spectrum and stability of resistance. Bull. WHO 51: 655–659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ariaratnam, V. and G. P. Georghiou. 1975. Carbamate resistance in Anopheles albimanus penetration and metabolism of carbaryl in propoxur-selected larvae. Bull. WHO 52: 91–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ayad, H. and G. P. Georghiou. 1975. Resistance to organophosphates and carbamates in Anopheles albimanus based on reduced sensitivity of acetylcholinesterase. J. Econ. Entomol 69: 295–297.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ayad, H. and G. P. Georghiou. 1979. Resistance pattern of Anopheles albimanus Wied. following selection by parathion. Mosquito News 39:121–125.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bailey, D. L., P. E. Kaiser, and R. E. Low. 1981. Population densities of Anopheles albimanus adults and larvae inside and outside cotton-growing areas in El Salvador. Mosquito News 41:151–154.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Belios, G. D. 1961. WHO Unpublished Working Paper WHOIMal 307.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brown, A. W. A. and R. Pal. 1971. Insecticide Resistance in Arthropods. WHO Monograph Ser. 38, 491 pp. Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bus vine, J. R. and R. Pal. 1969. The impact of insecticide resistance on control of vectors and vector-borne diseases. Bull. WHO 40:371–444.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chapin, G. and R. Wasserstrom. 1981. Agricultural production and malaria resurgence in Central America and India. Nature (London) 293: 181–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cramer, H. H. 1967. Plant protection and world crop production. Pft. Nachr. Bayer 20:1–524.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Elliott, R. 1959. Insecticide resistance in populations of Anopheles gambiae in West Africa. Bull. WHO 20: 777–796.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    FAO. 1986. International code of conduct on the distribution and use of pesticides. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 28 pp.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Garcia-Martin, G. and J. A. Najera-Morrondo. 1972. The interrelationships of malaria, agriculture and the use of pesticides in malaria control. Bol. Ofic. Sanit. Pan. Amer 6: 15–23.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Georghiou, G. P. 1970. Considerations on the relationship of larval and adult tolerance to insecticides in mosquitoes. Proc. & Papers, Calif. Mosquito Control Assoc 38: 55–59.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Georghiou, G. P. 1972. Studies on resistance to carbamate and organophosphorus insecticides in Anopheles albimanus. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg 21: 797–806.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Georghiou, G. P. 1975. Implications of agricultural insecticides in the development of resistance by mosquitoes. World Health Organization VBC/EC/75.3,13 p. (Also in Proc. UC/AID Conference The Agromedical Approach to Pesticide Management” Guatemala City, Jan. 1976. Univ. of Calif., Berkeley, mimeo, pp. 24–41).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Georghiou, G. P. 1982. The implication of agricultural insecticides in the development of resistance by mosquitoes with emphasis on Central America, pp. 95–121. In Resistance to Insecticides Used in Public Health and Agriculture. Proc. Int. Workshop, Colombo, Sri Lanka. Natl. Science Council, Sri Lanka Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Georghiou, G. P. 1986. A review of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in Pakistan and recommendations for future action. Unpubl. Report to U.S. Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C., 44 pp.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Georghiou, G. P., V. Ariaratnam, and S. G. Breeland. 1971. Anopheles albimanus Development of carbamate and organophosphorus resistance in nature. Bull. WHO 46:551–554.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Georghiou, G. P., S. G. Breeland, and V. Ariaratnam. 1973. Seasonal escalation of organophosphorus and carbamate resistance in Anopheles albimanus by agricultural sprays. Environ. Ento-mol 2: 369–374.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Georghiou, G. P., V. Ariaratnam, H. Ayad, and B. Betzios. 1974a. Present status of research on resistance to carbamate and organophosphorus insecticides in Anopheles albimanus. WHO/ VJJC/74.508, 9 pp.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Georghiou G. P., A. L. Black, R. I. Krieger, and T. R. Fukuto. 1974b. Joint action of diquat and related one-electron transfer agents with propoxur and fenthion against mosquito larvae. J. Econ. Entomol 67: 184–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Georghiou, G. P., V. Ariaratnam, M. E. Pasternak, and Chi Lin. 1975. Organophosphorus multiresistance in Culex pipiens fatigans Wied. in California. J. Econ. Entomol 68: 461–467.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hamon, J. and C. Garrett-Jones. 1963. La résistance aux insecticides chez des vecteurs majeurs du palludisme et son importance opérationnelle. Bull. WHO 281–324.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hamon, J., and J. Mouchet. 1961. La résistance aux insecticides chez les insectes d’importance médicale. Med Trop 21: 565–596.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hamon, J., M. Eyraud, B. Diallo, A. Dyemkouma, H. Bailly-Choumara, and S. Ouanou. 1961. Les moustiques de la République du Mali. Ann. Soc. Ent. France 130: 95–129.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Haridi, A. M. 1966. Report in WHO Inf. Cire. Insect Resist No. 58–59, p. 10.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hemingway, J., and G. P. Georghiou. 1983. Studies on the acetylcholinesterase of Anopheles albimanus resistant and susceptible to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol 19: 167–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hemingway, J., and G. P. Georghiou. 1984. Differential suppression of organophosphorus resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus by the synergists IBP, DEF and TPP. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 21: 1–9.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hobbs, J. H. 1973. Effects of agricultural spraying on Anopheles albimanus densities in a coastal area of El Salvador. Mosquito News 33: 420–423.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Junkert, R., and K. R. Townzen. 1973. Biological and engineering evaluation of an irrigated pasture mosquito problem in Stanislaus County, California, and recommendations for its alleviation. Caltf. Vector News 20: 1–9.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Livingston, J. M., W. C. Yearian, and S. Y. Young. 1978. Effect of insecticides, fungicides, and insecticide-fungicide combinations on development of lepidopterous larval populations in soybeans. Environ. Entomol 7: 823–828.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Martinez Palacios, A. 1959. Resistencia fisiologica a dieldrin y DDT de Anopheles albimanus en Mexico. Bol. Comm. Nac. Errad. Palud, Mexico, 3: 31–32.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mathis, W., H. F. Schoof, K. D. Quarterman, and R. W. Fay. 1956. Public Health Rpts 71: 876–878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mouchet, J. and J. Laigret. 1967. La résistance aux insecticides chez Aedes aegypti à Tahiti. Med. Trop 27: 685–692.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mulhera, T. D. 1972. An approach to comprehensive mosquito control. Calif. Vector Views 19: 61–64.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Mulla, M. S. and L. S. Mian. 1981. Biological and environmental impacts of the insecticides malathion and parathion on non-target biota in aquatic ecosystems. Residue Reviews 78: 101–135.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mulla, M. S., G. Majori, and A. A. Arata. 1979. Impact of biological and chemical mosquito control agents on non-target biota in aquatic ecosystems. Residue Reviews 7: 121–173.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    O’Connor, C. T., and Arwati. 1974. Insecticide Resistance in Indonesia. Unpubl. Document, WWO/VBC/74.505, 8 pp.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Pimentel, D., J. Krummel, D. Gallahan, J. Hough, A. Merrill, I. Schreiner, P. Vittum, F. Koziol, E. Back, D. Yen, and S. Fiance. 1978. Benefits and costs of pesticide use. BioScience 28: 772, 778–784.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rachou, R. G., G. Lyons, M. Mount-Lima, and J. A. Kerr. 1965. Synoptic epidemiological studies of malaria in El Salvador. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg 14:1–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ramsdale, C. D. 1973. Insecticide resistance in the anophelines of Turkey. Abstract, 9th Intern. Congr. Trop. Med. Malar 1: 260–261.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ramsdale, C. D. 1975. Insecticide resistance in the Anopheles of Turkey. Trans. Roy Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg 69: 226–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Raymond, M., D. Founder, J.-M. Bride, A. Cuany, J. Berge, M. Margnin and N. Pasteur. 1986. Identification of resistance mechanisms in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) from southern France: Insensitive acetylcholinesterase and detoxifying oxidases. J. Econ. Entomol 79: 1452–1458.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sharma, Y. P., and Mehrotra, K. N. 1986. Malaria resurgence in India: A critical study. Soc. Sci. Med. 22:835–845.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Schliessmann, D. J. 1974. Technical and economic justification for the use of comprehensive measures in malaria control and eradication. Unpublished document, W/J0/MAL/74.835,1 pp.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Smith, R. F. 1968. Second Session of FAO Panel of Experts on Integrated Pest Control, Rome, 19–24 Sept. 1968. (mimeo.) pp. 39–42.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Subha Rao, Y. 1979. Susceptibility status of Anopheles culicifacies to DDT, dieldrin and malathion in village Mangapeta, District Warangal, and hra Pradesh. J. Com. Dis. 2 41–43.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Watal, B. L., G. C. Joshi, and M. Das. 1981. Role of agricultural insecticides in precipitating vector resistance. J. Com. Dis 13: 71–74.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    WHO. 1973. Review of susceptibility tests of malaria vectors to insecticides from 1 July 1970 to 31 December 1971. Unpublished document, 18 pp.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    WHO. 1976. Resistance of Vectors and Reservoirs of Disease to Pesticides WHO Tech. Rpt. Ser 585, 88 pp.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    WHO. 1980. Resistance of Vectors of Disease to Pesticides. WHO Tech. Rpt. Ser 655, pp.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    WHO. 1986. Resistance of Vectors and Reservoirs of Disease to Pesticides. WHO Tech. Rpt. Ser 737, 87 pp.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Wright, J. W. 1971. The WHO Program for the Evaluation and Testing of New Insecticides. Bull. WHO, 44: 11–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Yates, W. E., N. B. Akesson, and D. E. Mayer. 1978. Drift of glyphosate sprays applied with aerial and ground equipment. Weed Science 26: 597–604.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Zulueta, J. de. 1959. Insecticide resistance in Anopheles sacharovi. Bull. WHO, 20: 797–821.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Routledge, Chapman & Hall, Inc. 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • George P. Georghiou

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations