Resistance Management in Multiple-pest Apple Orchard Ecosystems in Eastern North America

  • David J. Pree


One of the great challenges in the development of strategies to manage pesticide resistance in multipest ecosystems is that any change made in control procedures for one pest may interfere with systems for other pests or may exacerbate the development of new pests. Tree fruit ecosystems, especially apples, provide several classic examples of this. When the spotted tentiform leaf miner, Phyllonorycter blancardella, developed resistance to azinphosmethyl in the mid-1970s, growers n the northeastern United States and Canada were forced to shift to pyrethroids and methomyl or oxamyl for control. This in turn disrupted an integrated system of control for European red mite, Panonychus ulmi, and two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, using the phytoseiid predator Amblyseius fallacis. The predator had become resistant to azinphosmethyl but remained highly sensitive to pyrethroids. Consequently, control of phytophagous mites in this system reverted to a purely chemical program with predictable acaricide resistance problems.


Spider Mite Apple Orchard Resistance Management Pyrethroid Resistance Resistant Population 
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© Routledge, Chapman & Hall, Inc. 1990

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  • David J. Pree

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