Advertisement

Abstract

The concept of high-speed machining was conceived by Dr. Carl J. Salomon during a series of experiments from 1924 to 1931. This is documented in German patent number 523594 dated 27 April 1931. The patent was based on a series of curves of cutting speeds plotted against generated cutting temperatures. These experiments were performed on nonferrous metals such as aluminum, copper, and bronze. Salomon obtained speeds up to 54,200 surface feet per minute (sfm) [16,500 surface meters per minute (smm)] using helical milling cutters on aluminum. His contention was that the cutting temperature reached a peak at a given cutting speed; however, as the cutting speed was further increased, the temperature decreased. Figure 1.1 is a simplistic presentation of this concept.

Keywords

Shear Zone Tool Wear Chip Formation Cutting Speed Rake Face 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Akiyama, T., et al., “Study of the Orthogonal Cutting Mechanism by Controlled Shear Angle Experiments,” Asahikawa Tech. Coll., Japan, Men Fac. Eng. Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan, Vol. 14, No. 1, March 1975, pp. 13–20.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    American Machinist,“High Speed Machining,” Special Report 710, March 1979, pp. 115–130.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anonymous, “Penetration of Metal Plate by Projectiles,” and “Adiabatic Shear Bands in Steel,” D.S.L. Annual Report,1968–69, Maribyrnong, Victoria, Australia also see earlier reports.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Armarego, E. J. A. and R. H. Brown, The Machining of Metals, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1964.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Arndt, G., “Ballistically Induced Ultra-High-Speed Machining,” Ph.D. Thesis, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia, 1971.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Arndt, G., “Further Considerations of Ultra-High-Speed Machining,” Proc. 6th Intern. Conf. High Energy Rate Fabrication, Essen, W. Germany, September 1977 (in English).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Arndt, G., “On the Study of Metal-Cutting and Deformation at Ultra-High Speeds,” Proc. Harold Armstrong Conf. Prod. Sci. Industry, Vol. 30, Monash University, 1971.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Arndt, G., “Temperature Distributions in Orthogonal Machining,” M. Eng. Sc. Thesis, University of Melbourne, Australia, 1964.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Arndt, G., “The Development of Higher Machining Speeds: Part I, Historical,” Prod. Engnr., 1970, Vol. 49, p. 470; ‘Part I, Present Practice and Theory,“ Prod Engnr., 1970, Vol. 49, p. 517.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Arndt, G., “Ultra-High-Speed Machining: A Review and an Analysis of Cutting Forces,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Engrs., London, Vol. 187, 1973, pp. 625–634.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Arndt, G., “Ultra-High-Speed Machining: Notes on Metal Cutting at Speeds up to 7,300 ft/sec,” 15th Proc. Intern. Mach. Tool Des. and Res. Conf., September 1974, pp. 203–208.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Arndt, G., “On the Temperature Distribution in Orthogonal Machining,” Int. J. MTDR, 1967, Vol. 7, pp. 39–53.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Arndt, G., “Design and Preliminary Results From an Experimental Machine Tool Cutting Metals at up to 8,000 ft/sec,” Proc. 13th Intern. MTDR Conf., New York, Macmillan, 1972, pp. 217–223.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Arndt, G., “Ultra-High-Speed Machining,” Ann CIRP, Vol. 21, No. 1, Monash University, Victoria, Australia, 1972, pp. 3–6.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Arndt, G. and J. T. McHenry, “A Computerized Internal Ballistic Analysis of Conventional Gun System With Muzzle Velocities of up to 8,000 ft/sec,” Explosiast., 1970, Vol. 18, p. 253.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Backofen, W. A., Deformation Processing, Reading, Mass. Addison-Wesley, 1972, p. 271.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bailey, J. A. and D. G. Bhanvadia, “Correlation of Flow Stress With Strain Rate and Temperature During Machining,” J. Eng. Materials and Technol., Vol. 95H, 1973, p. 94.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Barash, M. M., “Mechanical State of the Sublayer of a Surface Generated by Chip-Removal Process—Cutting With a Sharp Tool,” Trans. ASME, Paper No. 75-WA/Prod-9 for Meeting 30 Nov-5 Dec 1975.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bhattacharyya, B. and R. R. Scrutton, “Plastic Flow at the Chip-Tool Interface During Hot -Machining,” ASME, Paper No. 70-WA/Prod-1, 1970.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bitans, K., “Investigation of the Stress-Strain Characteristics of Materials at High Rates of Strain,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Melbourne, 1970.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Black, J. T., “Flow Stress Model in Metal Cutting,” Trans. ASME,Paper No. 78-WA/Prod-27, to appear in J. Eng. Ind. Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Black, J. T., “On the Fundamental Mechanism of Large Strain Plastic Deformation,” Trans. ASME J. Eng. for Ind., 1971.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Black, P. H., Theory of Metal Cutting, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1961.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Boothroyd, G., “Fundamentals of Metal Machining and Machine Tools,” Scripta Met., Washington, D.C., 1975.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Boston, O. W., Bibliography on the Cutting of Metals, 1864–1943, New York, ASME, 1954.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bredendick, F., “Die Massenkrafte beim Zerspanvorgang,” Werkstart Betr., 1959, Vol. 92, No. 10, p. 739.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Brunton, J. H., et al., Metals for the Space Age—Plansee Proceedings,1964, 1965, Vol. 137, ed. F. Benesovsky, Berlin, Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Campbell, J. D. and S. G. Ferguson, “The Temperature and Strain-Rate Dependence of the Shear Strength of Mild Steel,” Phil. Mag., Vol. 21, No. 169, 1970, p. 63.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Carrington, W. E. and M. I. V. Gayler, “The Use of Flat-ended Projectiles for Determining Dynamic Yield Stress, III: Changes in Microstructure Caused by Deformation Under Impact at High Striking Velocities,” Proc. R. Soc., 1948, Vol. 194A, p. 323.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chakrabartz, J., “New Slipline Field Solution for the Orthogonal Machining of Metals,” Proc. Intern. Conf. Prob. Eng., 27th New Delhi, India, 27 August-4 September 1977, Inst. of Eng., India, Calcutta, 1977, Vol. 1, 8 pp.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chao, B. T. and K. J. Trigger, “An Analytical Evaluation of Metal Cutting Temperatures,” Trans. Am. Soc. Mech. Engrs., 1951, Vol. 73, p. 57.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Choudry, A. and P. J. Gielissi, “Dynamic Elastic Model of Ceramic Removal,” Univ. of R.I., Kingston, Inst. Symp. on Spec. Top in Ceramic Proc., Alfred Univ., N.Y., Plenum, 27–29 Aug 1973 (Mater. Res., No. 7: Surfaces and Interfaces of Glass and Ceramic ), New York, 1974, pp. 149–166.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Coldwell, L., J. Mazur, and J. Angell, “Diagnostic Sensing in Machining Operations,” Dept. of Mech. Eng., The University of Michigan, Report No. 320357, January 1975.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Coldwell, L. and L. Quackenbush, “A Study of High-Speed Milling,” Office of Research Administration, The University of Michigan, Report No. 05038–1 and 2-F, Parts I and I I, December 1962.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Committee on Science Base for Materials Processing, National Materials Advisory Board, Science Base for Materials Processing—Selected Topics, Contract No. MDA-903–78-C-0038 Final Report, National Materials Advisory Board, National Academy of Sciences, 2101 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, D.C., 20418, November 1979.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Craig, J. V. and T. A. C. Stock, ‘Microstructural Damage Adjacent to Bullet Holes in 70–30 Brass,“ J. Aust. Inst. Metals, 1970, Vol. 15, No. 1, p. 1.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Crerar, J., “Metal Cutting Bibliography 1943–1956,” Am. Soc. of Tool and Mfg. Engrs., Detroit, Mich., Boston, O. W., Vol. 1, 1960.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Datsko, J., “Material Properties and Manufacturing Processes,” New York, Wiley, 1966.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dean, R. N., “The Effect of Temperature on Young’s Modules,” No. NRL-M-2886, Naval Research Lab., November 1946.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    DeGroat, G. H. and A. Ashbum, “Ultra-High-Speed Machining,” American Machinist/Metalworking Manufacturing, Special Report No. 484, 22 February 1960, pp. 111–126.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Dhosi, J. M., et al., “High Temperature Deformation and Fracture Behavior of Metals Under High Strain Rate Conditions,” NOW-63–0502C, New England Materials Lab., Inc., NEMLAB-0502-FR, October 1964, p. 20.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Dorn, R. S., F. Hauser, and J. E. Dorn, “Theoretical Prediction of Strain Distribution Under Impact Loading,” Proc., Joint Meeting Univ. of NM and ASTM, Sep 1962.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Earles, S. W. E. and M. J. Kadhim, “Friction and Wear of Unlubricated Steel Surfaces at Speeds up to 655 ft/sec,” Proc. Insin. Mech. Engrs., 1965–1966, Vol. 180, Part 1, pp. 531–548.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ernst, H. and M. E. Merchant, “Chip Formation: Friction and Finish,” Cincinatti Milling Co., OH, 1941.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ernst, H., “Machining of Metals,” Trans. AMEE, 1938, p. 24.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ernst, H., ‘Physics of Metal Cutting,“ Am. Soc. Met., 1938.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Fenton, R. B. and P. L. Oxley, “Mechanics of Orthogonal Machining: Predicting Chip Geometry and Cutting Forces from Work-Material Properties and Cutting Conditions,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Engrs., London, Vol. 184, Part 1, 1969–1970. p. 417.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Fenton, R. G. and W. L. Cleghom, “Mechanics of Machining: Strain Rate in the Primary Zone,” Proc. 3rd NAMRC, Pittsburgh, 1975, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburg, Pa., p. 661.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Fenton, R. G. and P. L. B. Oxley, “Predicting Cutting Forces at Super-High Cutting Speeds From Work Material Properties and Cutting Conditions,” Proc. 8th MTDR. Conf., Oxford, Pergamon Press, 1967, pp. 247–258.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Findley, W. M. and R. M. Reed, “The Influence of Extreme Speeds and Rake Angles in Metal Cutting,” Trans. ASME, Vol. 85, No. 2, 1963, pp. 49–67.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Flom, D. G., et al., “Advanced Machining Research Program (AMRP),” General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY, Air Force Systems Command, Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories/MLTM, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, February 1980, p. 13.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Gane, N., “Chip Fracture During Metal Machining,” CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia, Mech. Eng. Trans. Inst. Eng. Aust., ME 3, 1978, pp. 5–8.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Cane, N., “Chip Fracture During the Machining of Brass,” Fracture at Work (Proc. Conf.), Melbourne, Australia, 1979.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Gilbert, W. W., “Economics of Machining,” Machining—Theory and Practice, Trans. Am. Soc. Met., 1950, pp. 465–485.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gilman, J. J., “Dislocation Dynamics and the Response of Materials to Impact,” Appl. Mech. Rev., 1968, Vol. 21, No. 8, p. 767.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Glass, C. M., G. M. Moss, and S. K. Golaski, “Response of Metals to High-Velocity Deformation,” eds. P. G. Shewman and V. F. Zackey, New York, Interscience Publishers, 1961.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Groat, H. G. and A. Ashburn, eds., “Ultra-High-Speed Machining,” Am. Mach., Vol. 104, 1960, p. 111.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Holloman, J. H. and J. D. Lubahn, “Flow of Metals at Elevated Temperatures,” Gen. Electric Rev., 1947, Vol. 50, No. 2, p. 28, No. 4, p. 44.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Iwata, K. and K. Veda, “Significance of Dynamic Crack Behavior in Chip Formation,” Kobe University, Japan, Ann. CIRP, Vol. 25, No. 1, 1976, pp. 65–70.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kahles, J. F., M. Field, and S. M. Harvey, “High-Speed Machining—Possibilities and Needs,” Ann. CIRP, Vol. 27, No. 2, 1978.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kauzmanm, W., “Flow of Solid Metals From the Standpoint of Chemical Rate Theory,” Trans. AIME, 1941, Vol. 143, p. 57.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kececioglu, D., “Shear Strain Rate in Metal Cutting and Its Effect on Shear Flow Stress,” Trans. ASME, Vol. 80, 1958, p. 158.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kellock, B., “High-Speed Machining of Alloy Road Wheels,” Mach. Prod. Eng., N3253, Vol. 126, April 1975, pp. 330–337.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kronenberg, M., “A New Approach to Some Relationships in the Theory of Metal Cutting,” ASTME Paper No. 86, 1958.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kienzle, O., “Die Best immung von Kraften and Leistungion and spanenden Werkzeugen and Werkzeugmaschinen,” VDI 94, No. 11 /12, 1952.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    King, R. I., “High-Speed Production Milling of Non-Ferrous Materials,” Proc. 4th NAIVIRC Conf., May 1976, pp. 334–338.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    King, R. I., “Phase IIA Summary Technical Report of the Feasibility Study for High-Speed Machining of Ships Propellers,” Contract No. 00140–79-C-0326, Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, Nov 1979.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    King, R. I., “Results of Some Recent Research of the High-Speed Machining of Nickel Aluminum Bronze,” 1980 Intern. Conf. on Tooling Applications and Materials for the 80’s, Purdue University, Soc. Carbide and Tool Eng., June 1980, pp. 181–197.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    King, R. I., “The Economics of Ultra-High-Speed Machining,” Tool Prod., January 1978, Vol. 43, No. 10, pp. 92–95.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    King, R. I., “The Economics of Ultra-High-Speed Machining,” Proc. 41st Westinghouse Tool Forum, June 1977.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    King, R. I., “Ultra-High-Speed Machining Offers Benefits,” Man. Tech. J., Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 22–27.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    King, R. I., “Ultra-High-Speed Machining of Nonferrous Metals,” Proc. CIRP Conf., Vol. 2, August 1977, p. 10.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    King, R. I., “Update of Ultra-High-Speed Machining,” Proc. 42nd Westinghouse Tool Forum, June 1978.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    King, R. I. and J. McDonald, “Product Design Implications of New High-Speed Milling Techniques,” Trans. ASME, November 1976, pp. 1170–1175.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Komanduri, R., “The Mechanics of Chip Segmentation,” Ph.D. Thesis, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia, 1972.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Komanduri, R. and R. H. Brown, “The Formation of Microcracks in Machining a Low Carbon Steel,” Metals and Materials, December 1972, p. 531.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Koontz, J. and W. Mitchell, “Ultra-High-Speed Machining,” Am. Mach., June 1977, pp. 135–139.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Krabacher, E. J. and M. E. Merchant, “Basic Factors in Hot-Machining of Metals,” Trans. ASME, Vol. 73, 1951, pp. 761–769.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Krabacher, E. J. and M. E. Merchant, “Zweiter Bericht uber die Vevielfachung heute ubliches Schnittgeschwindigkeiten,” Werkstattstechnik, Vol. 51, No. 133, 1961.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kumar, S. and V. Chandra, “A New Force System in High-Speed Machining,” Proc. Ann. CIRP, New Delhi, Vol. 1, 1977, Calcutta, India, Institution of Engineers.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kumar, S. and C. Mishra, “Hydrodynamic Action and Tool Wear at Tool—Chip Interface During High-Speed Machining,” J. Inst. Engrs., India, Mech. Eng. Div., Vol. 54, May 1974, pp. 191–197.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kuznetsov, V. D., G. D. Polosatkin, and M. P. Kalashnikova, “Investigation of the Cutting Process at Ultra-High Speeds,” Fiz. Metallov Metallovedenie,Vol. 10, September 1960. (Translation by Air Information Div., Report, pp. 60–109.)Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kuznetsov, V. D., G. D. Polosatkin, and M. P. Kalashnikova, “The Study of Cutting Processes at Very-High Speeds,” Fiz. Metallov Metallovedenie,1960, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 425–434; Transl. pp. 107–116.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Kuznetsov, V. D., “Super-High-Speed Cutting of Metals,” Iron Age, 1945, Vol. 155, pp. 66–69.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Larsen, R. J. and J. V. Barks, “Machines Keep Finding New Ways to Cut It,” Iron Age, 23 April 1979, p. 108.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Larsen, R. J., et al., “The Shape of Things to Come,” Meta/cutting,Vol. 222, No. 47, 17 December 1979, pp. 64–67 and 70–74.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lee, E. H., “Wave Propagation in Anelastic Materials,” Deformation and Flow of Solids Colloquium, Madrid, Spain, Proceedings, 1955, p. 129.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Laenaire, J. C. and W. A. Backofen, Metall. Trans. 1972, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 77–82.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Lira, F. and E. G. Thomsen, “Metal Cutting as a Property Test,” Trans. Am. Mech. Engrs., Engng. Ind.,1967, Vol. 89, No. 3, p. 489.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Anonymous, “Longer Tool Life, Higher Removal Rates Offered by Polycrystalline Diamond Tooling,” Cutting Tool Eng.,Vol. 26, No. 3–4, March—April 1974, pp. 8–9.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    MacGregor, C. W. and J. C. Fisher, “A Velocity-Modified Temperature for the Plastic Flow of Metals,” Trans. ASME, J. Appl. Mech., 1946, p. 68.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Malvern, L. E. “The Propagation of Longitudinal Waves of Plastic Deformation in a Bar of Material Exhibiting a Strain-Rate Effect,” 1951, Vol. 18, Trans. ASME, Vol. 73, J. Appl. Mech., 1951, p. 203.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Manion, S. A. and T. A. C. Stock, “The Measurement of Strain in Adiabatic Shear Bands,” J. Aust. Inst. Metals, 1969, Vol. 14, No. 3, p. 190.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    McGee, F. J., “An Assessment of High-Speed Machining,” Vought Corp. (Pamphlet) Society of Mfg. Engineers, SME Tech., Paper No. MR 78–648, p. 22.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    McGee, F. J., “Final Technical Report for Manufacturing Methods for High-Speed Machining of Aluminum,” Vought Corp. LTV Co., Tech. Reg. No. 6089,Mfg. Methods and Tech. Branch (DRDMI-EAT), U.S. Army Missile Research and Development Command, Redstone Arsenal, Al., 1 February 1978.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    McGee, F. J., P. Albrecht, and H. N. McCalla, “Development of Cutter Geometry Based on Material Properties,” Technical Report No. AFML-TR-68–350, Air Force Systems Command, December 1968.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    McLellan, D. L. and T. W. Eichenberger, “Strain Rate Effects on the Compressive Behavior of Pure Aluminum,” High Speed Testing, Vol. VI, “The Rheology of Solids,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 1969, Vol. 11, Interscience, New York, Wiley, pp. 185–204.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Merchant, M. E., “Basic Mechanics of the Metal-Cutting Process,” J. Appl. Mech.,September 1944, pp. A-168–175.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Metal Cutting Bibliography 1943–1956, 1960 NY, ASME.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Monarch Machine Tool Co., Speeds and Feeds for Better Turning Results,1957, pp. 37–38.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Moss, G. and C. M. Glass, “Some Microscopic Observations of Cracks Developed in Metal by Very Intense Stress Waves,” Ballistic Research Labs., BRL 1312, Aberdeen Proving Grounds, N.D., April 1960, p. 21.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Nachtman, E., “High-Speed Machining,” Machining With High Speeds and Feeds Clinic, 13–15 September 1977, Hotel Sonesta, Hartford, Conn.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    National Twist Drill and Tool Co., “Some Effects of Flute Helix and Rake Angles on Milling Cutter Performance,” Metal Cuttings, Vol. II, No. 3, July 1963.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Okushima, K., et al., “A Fundamental Study of Super-High-Speed Machining,” Bull. Japan Soc. Mech. Engrs., Vol. 8, No. 32, 1965, p. 702.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Okushima, K., K. Hitomi, and S. Sto, “A Study of Super-High-Speed Machining,” Ann. CIRP,Vol. 13, MS. 72/8, 1966, Great Britain, pp. 399–410.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Olberts, D. R., “A Study of the Effects of Tool Flank on Tool Chip Interface Temperatures,” Trans. ASME, Vol. 81, May 1959, pp. 152–158.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    th Anniversary Issue of American Machinist, Section J., November 1977.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Osborn, C. J. and N. E. Ryan “Metallography of Powder-powered Fastenings in Mild Steel,” J. Aust. Inst. Metals, 1957, Vol. I1, No. 2, pp. 48–53.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Osina, V., “Metallumformung mil hohen Geschwindigkeiten and Energien,” (Abstract), Industrie-Anzeiger, 1967, Vol. 89, No. 30, pp. 588–589; also Metal Treatment, 1966, Vol. 33, No. 248, 193; Original Strojierenntvi, 1964, Vol. 14, No. 9, p. 667.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Ostafiev, V. A. and S. Kobayashi, “Stress, Strain and Strain Rate in Metal Cutting,” Proc. 7th MTDR Conf., 1966, p. 479, Oxford, Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Oxley, P. L. B., “Applied Research in Plastic Deformation,” Aust. Mach., Prod. Engng., 1968, Vol. 21, No. 233, pp. 12–18.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Oxley, P. L. B., “Rate of Strain Effect in Metal Cutting,” Trans. Am. Soc. Mech. Engrs., J. Engng. Ind., 1963, Vol. 85, pp. 335–338.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Oxley, P. L. B. and M. G. Stevenson, “Measuring Stress/Strain Properties at Very High Strain Rates Using a Machining Test,” J. Inst. Metals, 1967, Vol. 95, pp. 308–313.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Pauls, F. E., “Introduction to the Rotary Cutter,” SME Tech. Paper Ser. MR for ESTEC Conf., Los Angeles, 14–17 March 1977, Book 1, Paper No. MR 77–208, Cutters Unlimited Company, p. 12.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Polosatkin, G. D., “Rezaniye metallov so skorostyami of 100–700 m/sek,” Sibirsk Phys. Tekhn. Inst., Sci. Rep., 1948.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Polosatkin, G. D., et al., “Cutting and Grinding at Ultra-High Speeds,” Isvestiya Uchebuykh Zavedenii, Fiz., 1967, Vol. 5, No. 10, pp. 93–101.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Polsatkin, G. D. and A. N. Khludkova, ‘Determination of the Specific Work Expended in Plastic Deformation in the Ultra-High-Speed Cutting of Metals,“ Isvestiya Vyschikh Uchebuykh Zavedenii, Fiz., 1967, Vol. 6, No. 7, pp. 81–83.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Polsatkin, G. D. and V. B. Titov, “On the Question of Tool Wear at Cutting Speeds of 200–600 m/sec,” Isvestiya Vyschikh Uchebuykh Zavedenii, Fiz., 1967, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 124–125.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Prevey, P. S. and M. Field, “Variation in Surface Stress Due to Metal Removal,” Ann. CIRP, Vol. 24, No. I., 1975, pp. 497–501.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Pugh, H. D., “Mechanics of the Cutting Process,” Proc. IME Conf. Tech. Eng. Mfr., Inst. Mech. ( London ), 1958, p. 237.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Read, H. E., et al., “Dislocation Dynamics and the Formulation of Constitutive Equations for Rate-Dependent Plastic Flow in Metals,” Final Report DASH-01–70C-0055, December 1970.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Recht, R. F., “The Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Machining,” M.S. Thesis, University of Denver, 1960.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Recht, R. F., “Catastrophic Thermoplastic Shear,” Trans. ASME, J. Appl. Mech., Vol. 31, June 1964, pp. 189–193.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Robichand, R. L. R., “Introduction to Rotary Cutters,” Can. Mach. Metalwork, Vol. 89, No. II, pp. 36–37.Google Scholar
  125. : Rogers, H. C., “Adiabatic Plastic Deformation,” Ann. Revised Material Sci., Vol. 9, 1979, p. 283.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Salomon, C., “Process for the Machining of Metals or Similar Acting Materials When Being Worked by Cutting Tools,” German Patent No. 523594, April 1931.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Salomonovich, E. D., “Investigation of Temperature in the Case of Super-High Cutting Rates,” Vestn. Mashinostroeniya, 1954, Vol. 34, No. 9, pp. 45–46.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Schmidt, A. O., “Ultra-High-Speed Machining… Panacea or Pipedream,” The Tool Engr., November 1958, pp. 105–109.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Shaw, M. C., et al., “Machining Titanium,” Cambridge, Mass., M.I.T., 1954.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Shaw, M. C., “Machinability,” 151 Special Report 9/4, The Iron and Steel Institute, London, U.K., p. 1, 1967.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Shaw, M. C., Metal Cutting, Principles, 3rd ed., Cambridge, Mass., M.I.T. Press, Vol. 1, 1957.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Shewman, P. G. and V. F. Zackay, “Response of Metals to High Velocity Deformation,” American Inst. of Mining, Metallurgical Conference on Response to Metals to High Velocity Deformation, Estes Park, 1960 and New York, Interscience, 1961.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Siekmann, H. J., “High-Speed Cutting With Ceramic Tools,” The Tool Engr., April 1958, pp. 85–88.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Stanford, J. E., “New Tools From New Materials,” Iron Age, 13 April 1977, p. 209.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Stevenson, M. G. and P. L. B. Oxley, “An Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Speed and Scale on the Strain-Rate in a Zone of Intense Plastic Deformation,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Engrs., 1969–1970, Vol. 184, Pt. 1, pp. 561–576.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Stevenson, M. G. and P. L. B. Oxley, “An Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Strain Rate and Temperature in the Flow Stress Properties of a Low Carbon Steel Using a Machining Test,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Engrs.,1970–1971, London, Vol. 185(55/71), p. 741.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Stevenson, M. G., and P. L. B. Oxley, “High Temperature Stress-Strain Properties of Low Carbon Steel From Hot Machining Tests,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Engrs.,London, Vol. 187(23/73), p. 263.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Stock, T. A. C. and K. R. I. Thompson, “Penetration of Aluminum Alloys by Projectiles,” Metall. Trans., 1970, Vol. 1, pp. 219–224.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Takeyama, H., T. Murai, and H. Usui, “Speed Effect on Metal Machining,” J. Mech. Lab., Japan, 1955, No. 2, pp. 59–61.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Tanaka, Y., H. Tsuwa, and M. Kitano, “Cutting Mechanism in Ultra-HighSpeed Machining,” ASME Paper No. 67-Prod-14, 1967.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Tanaka, Y. and M. Kitano, “Metal Cutting with Extremely High Speeds,” Technology Reports of the Osaka University, Vol. 16, No. 670, 1965, pp. 305–314.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Tangerman, E. J., “Are We Slow-pokes at Machining?” American Machinist, Vol. 93, December 29, 1949, p. 55–57.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Taylor, F. W., “On the Art of Cutting Metals,” Trans. ASME, Vol. 28, No. 1907, p. 31.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Thompson, K. R. L., T. A. C. Stock, and B. H. McConnoll, “Evidence for Melting of a Low-Melting-Point Alloy During High-Velocity Impact,” J. Aust. Inst. Metals, 1970, Vol. 15, No. 4, p. 26.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Tlusty, J., “Analysis of the State of Research in Cutting Dynamics” (McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario), Ann. CIRP, Vol. 27, No. 2, 1978, pp. 583–589.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Trent, E. M., Metal Cutting, London, Butterworth, 1977.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Vaughn, R. L., “A Theoretical Approach to the Solution of Machining Problems,” ASTME Technical Paper No. 164, September 1958.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Vaughn, R. L., “Ultra-High-Speed Machining,” Interim Engineering Report No. 1, Air Force Contract AF 33 600 36232, Production Engineering Department, Lockheed Aircraft Corp., Burbank, Calif., May 1958.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Vaughn, R. L., “Ultra-High-Speed Machining,” Interim Engineering Report No. 4, Air Force Contract AF 33 600 36232, Production Engineering Department, Lockheed Aircraft Corp., Burbank, Calif., February 1959.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Vaughn, R. L., “Ultra–High–Speed Machining (Feasibility Study),” Final Technical Engineering Report (Phase 1), AMC Tech. Report 60–7–635 ( 1 ), AMC Aeronautical Systems Center, USAF, Wright–Patterson AFB, June 1960.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Vaughn, R. L., “Ultra-High-Speed Machining,” Am. Mach., Vol. 104, No. 4, 22 February 1960, pp. 111–126.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Vaughn, R. L., “Ultra-High-Speed Machining—Solution to Producibility Problems,” The Tool Engr., October 1958, pp. 71–76.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Vaughn, R. L. and R. R. Krueck, “Recent Developments in Ultra-High-Speed Machining,” ASTME Technical Paper No. 255, April 1960.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Vaughn, R. L., L. J. Quackenbush, and L. V. Coldwell, “Shock Waves and Vibration in High-Speed Milling,” ASTME Technical Paper No. 62-WA-282, November 1962.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Venkatesh, V. C., “High-Speed Machining of Cast Iron and Steel,” Ann. CIRP, Vol. 15, 1967, pp. 387–391.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Venkatesh, V. C. and P. K. Philip, “Investigation of Deformation in High-Speed Orthogonal Machining of a Plain Carbon Steel Using a Ballistic Set,” Indian Inst. of Technology, Madras, Ann. CIRP, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1972, pp. 9–14.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Von Turkovich, B. F., “Dislocation Theory of Shear Stress and Strain Rate in Metal Cutting,” Proc. 8th MTDR. Conf,1967, pp. 531–542, Oxford, Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Von Turkovich, B. F., “High Velocity Machining,” Proceedings of the Ken Trigger Symposium on Metal Cutting and Manufacturing, University of Illinois at Urbana, Champaign—Urbana, Ill. April 1977.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Von Turkovich, B. F., “Influence of Very-High Cutting Speed on Chip Formation Mechanics,” VII North American Metalworking Research Conference Proceedings, 13–16 May 1979, SME Tech., 1979.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Von Turkovich, B. F., “On a Class of Thermomechanical Processes During Rapid Plastic Deformation” (with special reference to metal cutting), Ann. CIRP, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1972, p. 15.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Von Turkovich, B. F., “Deformation Mechanics During Adiabatic Shear,” Proc. 2nd North American Metalworking Research Conference,Madison, Wis., 1974, Supplement, p. 682.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Vukelja, D., “Thermodynamics of Cutting,” Monografije Iama, 1970, Vol. 2, Institute of Metal Cutting, Belgrade.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Weill, R., “Contribution à l’Étude des Outils Céramiques,” Microtechnic, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1958.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Williams, J. E., “Observations of Deformation Occurring in the Cutting Process Related to a Three-Zone Model of Machining,” Proc. 3rd North American Metalworking Research Conf., Pittsburgh, 1975.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Williams, J. E., “Some Aspects of a Three-Zone Model of Machining,” Ware, Vol. 48, No. 1, May 1978, pp. 55–77.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Williamson, D. T. N., “System 24—A New Concept of Manufacture,” 8th Intern Machine Tool Des. Res. Conf., University of Manchester, September 1967.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Williamson, D. T. N., “New Wave in Manufacturing,” Am. Mach. (Spec. Report, No. 607), 1967, Vol. 3, No. 19, 11 September, pp. 143–154.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Wingrove, A. L., “A Note on the Structure of Adiabatic Shear Bands in Steel,” J. Aust. Inst. Metals, 1971, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 67–70.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Wolak, J. and I. Finnie, “A Comparison of Stress-Strain Behavior in Cutting and High Strain-Rate Compression Tests,” Proc. 8th MTDR Conf., Oxford, Pergamon Press, pp. 233–246, 1967.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Wright, P. K., “Metallurgical Effects at High Strain Rates in the Secondary Shear Zone of the Machining Operation,” Dept. of Sci. and Ind. Res., Auckland, New Zealand; Metal Eff. at High Strain Rates, Conf., Proc., Paper and Discussion, Albuquerque, NM, New York, Plenum Press (Metall., Soc. of AIME Proc.), 1973, 5–8 February 1973, pp. 547–558.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Wright, P. K. and A. Bagchi, “Tool Wear Processes in High-Speed Machining,” Proc. 8th NAVRC, Rolla, M., 1980, p. 277.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Wright, P. K., J. G. Horne, and D. Tabor, “Boundary Conditions at the Chip Tool Interface in Machining: Comparison Between Seizure and Sliding Friction, Wear,” June 1979, Vol. 54, No. 2, pp. 371–390 (in English).Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Wright, P. K. and K. C. Mannie, “Strain Hardening, Strain Rate and Temperature Effects in Metal Cutting,” Fracture at Work (Proc. Conf.), Melbourne, Australia, 12–14 February 1979, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia, 1979.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Wright, P. K. and S. P. McCormick, “Effect of Rake Trace Design on Cutting Tool Temperature Distribution,” J. Eng. for Ind. Trans. ASME, Paper No. 79-WA/Prod-3, 1979.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Wright, P. K. and J. L. Robinson, “Material Behavior in Deformation Zones of Machining,” J. Metals Tech., Vol. 4, 1977, p. 240.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Yamada, K. and N. Nakayama, “Ultra-High-Speed Machining and Its Technique,” Sci. Mach.,Vol. 13, 1961, pp. 779–782 and 911–916.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Yamamoto, A. and S. Nakamura “Study on Chip Formation in Ultra-HighSpeed Cutting: Cutting of Photoelastic Materials at Speeds Over Elastic Distortion Wave Propagation Velocity,” Bull. Japan Soc. Precision Engr., September 1971, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 67–72 (in English).Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Zener, C., “The Micro-Mechanism of Fracture, Fracturing of Metals,” Trans. Am. Soc. Metals, 1948, pp. 3–31.Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Zener, C. and J. H. Holloman, “Plastic Flow and Rupture of Metals,” Trans. Am. Soc. Metals, 1944, Vol. 33, pp. 163–235.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Barrow, G., Tribology, February 1972, p. 22.Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Bhattacharyya, A. and I. Ham, Trans. ASME, J. Eng. for Ind., August 1969, p. 790.Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Cook, N. H., Trans. ASME, J. Eng. Ind., November 1973, p. 931.Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Ham, I. and N. Narutaki, ASME, J. Eng. for Ind., November 1973, p. 951.Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Hoggatt, C. R. and R. F. Recht, J. Appl. Phys., 1968, Vol. 39, pp. 1856–1862.Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Hsu, T. C., Trans. ASME, J. of Eng. for Ind., August 1969, p. 652.Google Scholar
  186. Lemaire, J. C. and W. A. Backofen, 1972 Metall. Trans.,Vol. 3, pp. 477–482.Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Recht, R. F., 1964 Trans. ASME,Vol. 86 (Ser. E), pp. 189–193.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Siekmann, H. J., “The Use of an Ultra-High-Speed, 150 Horsepower Lathe for Machinability Studies,” ASTE, Vol. 58, No. 82, May 1958, p. 8.Google Scholar
  189. Stock, T. A. C. and K. R. L. Thompson, “Penetration of Aluminum Alloys by Projectiles,” 1970 Metall. Trans.,Vol. 1, pp. 219–224.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Stock, T. A. C. and A. L. Wingrove, J. Mech. Eng. Sci., 1971, Vol. 13, pp. 110–115.Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Wright, P. K. 1973 (see pp. 547–558), M. E. Beckman, S. A. Finnegan. In Metallurgical Effects at High Strain Rates, eds. R. W. Rohde, B. M. Butcher, J. R. Holland, C. H. Karnes, pp. 531–543, New York, Plenum, 1973, p. 699.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Wright, P. K. and E. M. Trent, Met. Tech., Vol. 1, January 1974, p. 13.Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Zener, C. and J. H. Holloman, J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 15, 1944, pp. 22–32.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert I. King
    • 1
  1. 1.Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, IncUSA

Personalised recommendations