A Retrospective and Prospective View of Postsecondary Education for Adults with Learning Disabilities

  • Susan A. Vogel


The field of learning disabilities, as we know it today, is a relatively young field. Moreover, our understanding of adults with learning disabilities is only in its infancy. In the 1980s, we witnessed significant changes in our awareness of the chronicity of learning disabilities. We have yet to examine systematically the effects of intervention and maturation on cognition, language, academic achievement, employment, and psychosocial development by gender and type of learning disability. Moreover, we are only in the seminal stages in systematically identifying the factors that can have a significant impact on educational and employment attainments and life satisfaction.


Learning Disability Reading Disability Learn Disability Developmental Dyslexia Selective College 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adelman, P.B., & Vogel, S.A. (1990). College graduates with learning disabilities—Employment attainment and career patterns. Learning Disability Quarterly, 13(3), 154–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adelman, P.B., & Vogel, S.A. (1991). The learning disabled adult. In B. Wong (Ed.), Learning about learning disabilities, (pp. 564–594). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  3. Adelman, P.B., & Wren, C.T. (Eds.). (1990). Learning disabilities, graduate school, and careers: The student’s perspective. Lake Forest IL: Barat College.Google Scholar
  4. Astin, A., Green, K., Korn, W., Schalit, M., & Berz, E. (1988). The American freshman: National norms for 1988. Los Angeles: University of California.Google Scholar
  5. Board of Directors Association for Children and Adults with Learning Disabilities ACLD (1985). Definition of the condition of specific learning disabilities, Newsbriefs, 153, 1–3.Google Scholar
  6. Dalke, C. (1988). Woodcock-Johnson psycho-educational test battery profiles: A comparative study of college freshmen with and without learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 21(9), 567–570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. DeFries, J.C. (1985). Colorado reading project. In D.B. Gray & J.F. Kavanaugh (Eds.), Behavioral Measures of Dyslexia, (pp. 107–122). Parkton, MD: York Press.Google Scholar
  8. DeFries, J.C., & Fulker, D.W. (1985). Multiple regression analysis of twin data. Behavior Genetics, 15, 467–473.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. DeFries, J.C., & Fulker, D.W. (1988). Multiple regression analysis of twin data: Etiology of deviant scores versus individual differences. Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae: Twin Research, 37, 205–216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. DeFries, J.C., Fulker, D.W., & LaBuda, M.C. (1987). Evidence for a genetic etiology in reading disability in twins. Nature, 329, 537–539.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. DeFries, J.C., & Gillis, J.J. (1991). Etiology of reading deficits in learning disabilities: Quantitative genetic analysis. In J.E. Obrzut & G.W. Hynd (Eds.), Advances in the neuropsychology of learning disabilities: Issues, methods and practice (pp. 29–47). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  12. Duane, D.D., & Gray, D.B. (Eds.). (1991). The reading brain: The biological basis of dyslexia. Parkton, MD: York Press.Google Scholar
  13. Federal Register (August 23, 1977). Education of handicapped children: Implementation of part B of the Education of the Handicapped Act. Federal Register, Part II. Washington, DC: U.S. Office of Education; U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.Google Scholar
  14. Freed, B. (1987). Exemptions from the foreign language requirement: A review of recent literature, problems, and policy. Association of Departments of Foreign Language Bulletin, 18(2), 13–17.Google Scholar
  15. Gajar, A., Salvia, J., Gajria, M., & Salvia, S. (1989). A comparison of intelligence achievement discrepancies between learning disabled and non-learning disabled college students. Learning Disabilities Research, 4(2), 119–124.Google Scholar
  16. Galaburda, A.M. (1983). Developmental dyslexia: Current anatomical research. Annals of Dyslexia, 33, 41–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Galaburda, A.M. (1985). Developmental dyslexia: A review of biological interactions. Annals of Dyslexia, 35, 21–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Galaburda, A.M. (1989). Ordinary and extraordinary brain development: Anatomical variation in developmental dyslexia. Annals of Dyslexia, 39, 67–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Galaburda, A.M. (1991). Anatomy of dyslexia: Argument against phrenology. In D.D. Duane & D.B. Gray (Eds.), The reading brain: The biological basis of dyslexia (pp. 119–131). Parkton, MD: York Press.Google Scholar
  20. Guyer, B. (1988). Dyslexic doctors: A resource in need of discovery. Southern Medical Journal, 81(9), 1151–1154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hammill, D.D. (1990). Defining learning disabilities: The emerging consensus. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23, 74–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hammill, D.D., Leigh, J., McNutt, G., & Larsen, S.C. (1981). A new definition of learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 4, 336–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Houck, C.K., Engelhard, J., & Geller, C (1989). Self-assessment of learning disabled and nondisabled college students: A comparative study. Learning Disabilities Research, 5(1), 61–67.Google Scholar
  24. Hughes, C.A., & Osgood-Smith, J. (1990). Cognitive and academic performance of college students with learning disabilities: A synthesis of the literature. Learning Disability Quarterly, 13(1), 66–79.Google Scholar
  25. Johnson, D., & Blalock, J. (Eds.). (1987). Adults with learning disabilities. Orlando, FL: Grune & Stratton.Google Scholar
  26. Larsen, J.P., Høien, T., Lundberg, I., & Odegaard, H. (1990). MRI evaluation of the size and symmetry of the planum temporale in adolescents with developmental dyslexia. Brain and Language, 39, 289–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Leonard, F.C. (1991). Using Wechsler Data to predict success for learning disabled college students. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 6(1), 17–24.Google Scholar
  28. Lubs, H.A., Duara, R., Levin, B., Jallad, B., Lubs, M.L., Rabin, M., Kushch, A., & Gross-Glenn, K. (1991). Dyslexia subtypes: Genetics, behavior, and brain imaging. In D.D. Duane & D.B. Gray (Eds.), The reading brain: The biological basis of dyslexia (pp. 89–117). Parkton, MD: York Press.Google Scholar
  29. Lubs, H.A., Rabin, M., Carland-Saucier, K., Wen, X.L., Gross-Glenn, K., Duara, R., Levin, B., & Lubs, M.L. (1990). Genetic bases of developmental dyslexia: Molecular studies. In J. Obrzut & G. Hynd, (Eds.). Neuropsychological Foundations of Learning Disabilities: A Handbook of Issues, Methods and Practice. Orlando, FL: Academic Press, Inc.Google Scholar
  30. National Advisory Committee on Handicapped Children. (1968). Subcommittee on education of the committee on labor and public welfare: First annual report. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  31. National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities. (1981). Learning disabilities: Issues on definition. Unpublished manuscript. (Reprinted in Journal of Learning Disabilities, 20, 107–108, 1987.)Google Scholar
  32. Parks, A.W., Antonoff, S., Drake, C., Oliver, C., Sedita, J., Weiss, I., & Daddi, B. (1982). Screening for specific learning disabilities among dental students. Journal of Dental Education, 46, 586–591.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Parks, A.W., Antonoff, S., Drake C., Skiba, W.F., & Soberman, J. (1987). A survey of programs and services for students with learning disabilities in graduate and professional schools. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 20, 181–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. President and Fellows of Harvard University. (1990). The next step: An invitational symposium on learning disabilities in selective colleges (Proceedings). Cambridge, MA: Author.Google Scholar
  35. The Rehabilitation Act of 1973, §504, 29 U.S.C. §794 (1977).Google Scholar
  36. The Rehabilitation Act Regulations, 34 C.F.R. part 104.Google Scholar
  37. Runyan, M.K. (1991). The effect of extra time on reading comprehension scores for university students with and without learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 24(2), 104–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Saracoglu, B., Minden, H., & Wilchesky, M. (1989). The adjustment of students with learning disabilities to university and its relationship to self-esteem and self-efficacy. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 22(9), 590–592.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Scheiber, B., & Talpers, J. (1987). Unlocking Potential: College and other choices for learning disabled people—a step-by-step guide. Bethesda, MD: Adler & Adler.Google Scholar
  40. Shaywitz, S.E., & Shaw, R. (1988). The admissions process: An approach to selecting learning disabled students at the most selective colleges. Learning Disabilities Focus, 3(2), 81–86.Google Scholar
  41. Smith, S.D., Kimberling, W.S., Pennington, B.F., & Lubs, M.A. (1983). Specific reading disability: Identification of an inherited form through linkage analysis. Science, 219, 1345–1347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. U.S. Department of Education. (1987). Profile of handicapped students in postsecondary education. National Center for Education Statistics, 1987 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (Report No. 065–000–00375–9). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  43. Vogel, S.A. (1986). Levels and patterns of intellectual functioning among LD college students: Clinical and educational implications. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 19, 71–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Vogel, S.A. (1987). Issues and concerns in LD college programming. In D. Johnson & J. Blalock (Eds.), Adults with learning disabilities: Clinical studies (pp. 239–275). Orlando, FL: Grune and Stratton.Google Scholar
  45. Vogel, S.A., & Adelman, P.B. (1990a). Extrinsic and intrinsic factors in graduation and academic failure among LD college students. Annals of Dyslexia (Orton Dyslexia Society), 40, 119–137.Google Scholar
  46. Vogel, S.A., & Adelman, P.B. (1990b). Intervention effectiveness at the postsecondary level for the learning disabled. In T. Scruggs & B. Wong (Eds.), Intervention research in learning disabilities (pp. 329–344). New York: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Vogel, S.A., & Walsh, P.C. (1987). Gender differences in cognitive abilities in learning disabled females and males. Annals of Dyslexia (Orton Dyslexia Society), 371, 142–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wren, C.T., & Segal, L. (1985). College students with learning disabilities: A student’s perspective. Chicago: DePaul University.Google Scholar
  49. Wren, C.T., Adelman, P.B., Pike, M.B., & Wilson, J.L. (1987). College and the high school student with learning disabilities. Chicago: DePaul University.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susan A. Vogel

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations