Advertisement

Specific Application of Meso- and Macrocosms for Solving Problems in Fisheries Research

  • Victor Øiestad
Part of the Coastal and Estuarine Studies book series (COASTAL, volume 37)

Abstract

The great complexity of open-sea systems has made it necessary to study fish population dynamics, on a small scale, in the laboratory. These indoor studies have given a far better understanding of early life histories of fish species. However, when the results are applied in interpretation of open-sea events, the large gap in structure and scale makes this use of results dubious.

The need for transitional studies to bridge this gap has been suggested since the mid-1970s and increasing numbers of such studies have been carried out, mainly with commercial North Atlantic species. The main results from these studies have questioned the significance of some hypotheses set forward from laboratory observations. These include the hypotheses:
  • that larval survival and growth is not dependent upon densities of food organisms in the order of 100 to 1,000 per liter, but rather in the order of 1 to 100;

  • that predation might be responsible for a far larger fraction of larval mortality than earlier suggested; and

  • that fatal starvation in the sea might be more a question of growth below a species-specific growth barrier for survival rather than larvae brought to a point of irreversible starvation as observed in traditional starvation studies.

Transitional studies are diversifying in the direction of small units (mesocosms) in large number and increasing use of larger systems (macrocosms). A further development should profit from integrated laboratory, meso- and macrocosm studies to deal with more specific and complex questions in early fish population dynamics. This strategy permits studies including post-metamorphosed stages. Larger programs within this field should utilize international coordination and participation, including a number of scientific disciplines.

Keywords

Specific Growth Rate Fish Larva Early Life History Food Organism Scophthalmus Maximus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Andersen, T. and E. Moksness. 1988. Estimation of age in days and daily growth rate in larvae and juvenile marine fishes based upon reading daily increments in their otoliths. ICES 1988 ELHS/Poster No. 56.Google Scholar
  2. Beyer, J. E. and G. C. Laurence. 1981. Aspects of stochasticity in modelling growth and survival of clupeoid fish larvae. Rapp. P.-V. Réun. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer 178: 17–23.Google Scholar
  3. Ehrlich, K. F., J. H. S. Blaxter, and R. Pemberton. 1976. Morphological and histological changes during the growth and starvation of herring and plaice larvae. Mar. Biol. 35: 105–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ellertsen, B., E. Moksness, P. Solemdal, S. Tilseth, T. Westgârd, and V. Oiestad. 1981. Growth and survival of cod larvae in an enclosure. Experiments and a mathematical model. Rapp. P.-V. Réun. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer 178: 45–57.Google Scholar
  5. English, K. K. 1983. Predator-prey relationships for juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, feeding on zooplankton in “in situ” enclosures. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 40: 287–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Frank, K. T. and W. C. Leggett. 1982. Coastal water mass replacement; its effect on zooplankton dynamics and the predator-prey complex associated with larval capelin (Ma/lotus vi//osus). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 39: 991–1003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fraser, A. J., J. R. Sargent, J. C. Gamble, and P. MacLachlan. 1987. Lipid class and fatty acid composition as an indicator of the nutritional condition of larval Atlantic herring. Am. Fish. Soc. Symp. 2: 129–143.Google Scholar
  8. Fuiman, L. E. and J. C. Gamble. 1988. Predation by Atlantic herring, sprat and sand eels on herring larvae in large enclosures. Mar. Eco% Prog. Ser. 44: 1–6.Google Scholar
  9. Gamble, J. C. 1984. Simultaneous rearing of herring and cod larvae in the Loch Ewe enclosures. ICES CM 1984/L: Poster 34 (mimeo.).Google Scholar
  10. Gamble, J. C. and E. D. Houde. 1984. Growth, mortality and feeding of cod (Gadus morhua L.) larvae in enclosed water columns and in laboratory tanks. Pp. 123–143. In: E. Dahl, D. S. Danielssen, E. Moksness, and P. Solemdal [eds.], The Propagation of Cod ( Gadus morhua L. ). Flodevigen Rapp., 1.Google Scholar
  11. Gamble, J. C., P. MacLachlan, and D. D. Seaton. 1985. Comparative growth and development of autumn and spring spawned Atlantic herring larvae reared in large enclosed ecosystems. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 26: 19–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gamble, J. C. and L. E. Fuiman. 1987. Evaluation of in situ enclosures during a study of the importance of starvation to the vulnerability of herring larvae to a piscine predator. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 113: 91–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Geffen, A. J. 1982. Otolith ring deposition in relation to growth rate in herring (C/upea harengus) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) larvae. Mar. Biol. 71: 317–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Houde, E. D. 1985. Mesocosms and recruitment mechanisms. Council Meeting, Int. Coun. Explor. Sea 1985, Mini-Symp. No. 4: 1–13 (mimeo.).Google Scholar
  15. Houde, E. D. and S. A. Berkeley. 1982. Food and growth of juvenile herring Clupea harengus pallasi, in CEPEX enclosures. Pp. 239–250. In: G. D. Grice and M. R. Reeve [eds.], Marine Mesocosms. Biological and Chemical Research in Experimental Ecosystems. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  16. Hunter, J. R. 1976. Report of a colloquium on larval fish mortality studies and their relation to fishery research, January 1975. U.S. NOAA, Tech. Rep., NMFS Circular. No. 395: 1–5.Google Scholar
  17. Jones, R. 1973. Density dependent regulation of the numbers of cod and haddock. Rapp. P.-V. Réun. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer 164: 156–173.Google Scholar
  18. Koeller, P. and T. R. Parsons. 1977. The growth of young salmonids (Oncorhynchus keta): controlled ecosystem pollution experiment. Bull. Mar. Sci. 27: 114–118.Google Scholar
  19. Kvenseth, P. G. and V. Oiestad. 1984. Large-scale rearing of cod fry on the natural food production in an enclosed pond. Pp. 645–655. In: E. Dahl, D. S. Danielssen, E. Moksness, and P. Solemdal [eds.], The Propagation of Cod ( Gadus morhua L. ). Flodevigen Rapp., 1.Google Scholar
  20. de Lafontaine, Y. and W. C. Leggett. 1987. Evaluation of in situ enclosures for larval fish studies. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 44: 54–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Laurence, G. C. 1977. A bioenergetic model for the analysis of feeding and survival potential of winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, larvae during the period from hatching to metamorphosis. U.S., Fish. Wildl. Serv., Fish. Bull. 75: 529–546.Google Scholar
  22. Laurence, G. C., T. A. Halavik, B. R. Burns, and A. S. Smigielski. 1979. An environmental chamber for monitoring in-situ growth and survival of larval fishes. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 108: 197–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Leggett, W. C. 1986. The dependence of fish larvae survival on food and predator densities. Pp. 117–138. In: S. Skreslet [ed.], The Role of Freshwater Outflow in Coastal Marine Ecosystems. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  24. May, R. C. 1974. Larval mortality in marine fishes and the critical period concept. Pp. 3–19. In: J. H. S. Blaxter [ed.], The Early Life History of Fish. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  25. Moffatt, N. M. 1981. Survival and growth of northern anchovy larvae on low zooplankton densities as affected by the presence of a Chlorella bloom. Rapp. P.-V. Réun. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer 178: 475–480.Google Scholar
  26. Moksness, E. 1982. Food uptake, growth and survival of capelin larvae (Mallotus villosus Muller) in an outdoor constructed basin. Fish. Dir. Skr. Ser. HavUnders. 17: 267–285.Google Scholar
  27. Moksness, E. and V. Oiestad. 1987. Interaction of Norwegian spring-spawning herring larvae (Clupea harengus) and Barents Sea capelin larvae (Mallotus villosus) in a mesocosm study. J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer 44: 32–42.Google Scholar
  28. Moksness, E. and V. Wespestad. 1988. Ageing and back-calculating growth rate of Pacific herring (Clupea harengus pallasi) larvae by reading daily increments in their otoliths. ICES 1988 ELHS/ Poster No. 30.Google Scholar
  29. Nellen, W. 1986. A hypothesis on the fecundity of bony fish. Ber. Dt. Wiss. Kommn. Meeresforsch. 31: 75–89.Google Scholar
  30. Oiestad, V. 1982. Application of enclosures to studies on the early life history of fishes. Pp. 49–62. In: G. D. Grice and M. R. Reeve [eds. ], Marine Mesocosms. Biological and Chemical Research in Experimental Ecosystems. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  31. Oiestad, V. 1983. Growth and survival of herring larvae and fry (Clupea harengus L.) exposed to different feeding regimes in experimental ecosystems: outdoor basin and plastic bags. Unpubl. thesis (Dr. Phil. ): University of Bergen. 299 pp.Google Scholar
  32. Oiestad, V. 1984. Criteria for condition evolved from enclosure experiments with cod larva populations. Pp. 213–229. In: E. Dahl, D. S. Danielssen, E. Moksness, and P. Solemdal [eds.], The Propagation of Cod ( Gadus morhua L. ). Flodevigen Rapp., 1.Google Scholar
  33. Oiestad, V. 1985. Predation on fish larvae as a regulatory force, illustrated in mesocosm studies with large groups of larvae. NAFO Sci. Counc. Stud. 8: 25–32.Google Scholar
  34. Oiestad, V., B. Ellertsen, P. Solemdal, and S. Tilseth. 1976. Rearing of different species of marine fish fry in a constructed basin. Pp. 303–329. In: G. Persoone and E. Jaspers [eds.], Proc. 10th Eur. Mar. Biol. Symp., Vol. 1. Wettern, Belgium: Universa Press.Google Scholar
  35. Oiestad, V. and V. Moksness. 1981. Study of growth and survival of herring larvae (Clupea harengus L.) using plastic bag and concrete basin enclosures. Rapp. P.-V. Réun. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer 178: 144–152.Google Scholar
  36. Oiestad, V., A. Folkvold, and P. G. Kvenseth. 1985a. Growth-pattern of Atlantic cod larvae (Gadus morhua L.) from first feeding to metamorphosis studied in a mesocosm. Council Meeting, Int. Coun. Explor. Sea, 1985, Mini-Symp. No. 9: 1–10 (mimeo.).Google Scholar
  37. Oiestad, V., P. G. Kvenseth, and A. Folkvold. 1985b. Mass production of Atlantic cod juveniles (Gadus morhua L.) in a Norwegian saltwater pond. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 114: 590–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rognerud, C. 1887. Hatching cod in Norway. Bull. U.S. Fish Commn. 8: 113–119.Google Scholar
  39. Rollefsen, G. 1946. Kunstig oppdrett av flyndreyngel. Pp. 91–113. In: C. L. Godske [ed.], Forskning og Framsteg. Bergen: J. W. Eides Forlag.Google Scholar
  40. Rosenberg, A. A. and A. S. Haugen. 1982. Individual growth and size-selective mortality of larval turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) reared in enclosures. Mar. Biol. 72: 73–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rothschild, B. J. and T. R. Osborn. 1988. Small-scale turbulence and plankton contact rates. J. Plankton Res. 10: 465–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schnack, D. 1981. Studies on the mortality of Pacific herring larvae during their early development using artificial in-situ containments. Rapp. P.-V. Réun. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer 178: 135–142.Google Scholar
  43. Wespestad, V. G. and E. Moksness. 1990. Observations on the early life history of Pacific herring (Clupea palasí) from Bristol Bay, Alaska, in a marine mesocosm. Fish. Bull. 88.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Victor Øiestad

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations