Etiology

  • Robert T. Schooley
Part of the Clinical Topics in Infectious Disease book series (CLIN.TOP.INFECT)

Abstract

Infectious mononucleosis is an acute illness characterized by fever, malaise, sore throat, and lymphadenopathy. The importance of the syndrome relates both to the considerable morbidity with which it is associated and to the unique biologic characteristics of the agent that is responsible for most cases of the illness. This chapter will trace the events leading to the definition of the syndrome and will outline the extensive investigations that led to the discovery of the Epstein-Barr virus as the etiologic agent for the majority of cases of infectious mononucleosis

Keywords

Hepatitis Europe Lymphoma Leukemia Pneumonia 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Armstrong, D., Henle, G., and Henle, W. (1966). Complement-fixation tests with cell lines derived from Burkitt’s lymphoma and acute leukemia. J Bacteriol 91: 1257–1262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bang, J. (1942). Experiments with the transfer of infectious mononucleosis to monkeys (Macacus rhesus) with negative results. Acta Med. Scand. 3: 291–302.Google Scholar
  3. Bang, J. (1943). Experiments with the transmission of infectious mononucleosis to man. Acta Med. Scand 113: 304–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bland, J. (1930). Glandular fever. An experimental investigation. Lancet 2: 521–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bland, J. (1931a). Glandular fever, II. The protozoal nature of the experimental disease. Br J. Exper. Path. 12: 311–319.Google Scholar
  6. Bland, J. (1931b). Further experiments with the transmission of infectious mononucleosis. Proc. Roy. Soc. Med 25 (I): 166–169.Google Scholar
  7. Bloedom, W.A., and Houghton, J.E. (1921). The occurrence of abnormal leukocytes in the blood in acute infections. Arch. Intern. Med. 27: 315–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boggs, T.R. (1913). Glandular fever. In Modern medicine, W. Osier and T. MacCrae (eds.). Philadelphia, Lea and Febiger, pp. 1012–1014.Google Scholar
  9. Boggs, T.R. (1925). Glandular fever. In Osier’s Modern Medicine, T. MacCrae (ed.). Philadelphia, Lea and Febiger, pp. 200–202.Google Scholar
  10. Burkitt, D.P. (1958). A sarcoma involving the jaws in African children. Br. J. Surg. 46: 218–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Burkitt, D.P. (1962a). A children’s cancer dependent on climatic factors. Nature 194: 232–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burkitt, D.P. (1962b). A tumour safari in East and Central Africa. Br. J. Cancer 16: 379–386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Burkitt, D.P., and Wright, D.H. (1966). Geographical and tribal distribution of the African lymphoma in Uganda. Br. Med J. 1: 569–573.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cabot, R.C. (1913). The lymphocytosis of infection. Am. J. Med Sci. 145: 335–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cameron, D., and MacBean, L.M. (1973). A Clinical Study of Infectious Mononucleosis and Toxoplasmosis. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  16. Cantlie, J. (1897). The spread of plague. Lancet 1: 4–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carter, R. L., and Penman, H. G. (1969). Infectious Mononucleosis. Oxford, Blackwell Scientific Publications.Google Scholar
  18. Chang, R.S., Lewis, J.P., and Abildgaard, C.F. (1973). Prevalence of oropharyngeal excreters of leukocyte- transforming agents among a human population. N. Engl. J. Med 289: 1325–1329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chang, R.S., Lewis, J.S., Reynolds, R.D., et al. (1978). Oropharyngeal excretion of Epstein-Barr virus by patients with lympho proliferative disorders and by recipients of renal homografts. Ann. Intern. Med. 88: 34–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Curschmann, H. (1906). Parotitis epidemia. Münch Med Wschr. 53: 384–385.Google Scholar
  21. Downey, H., and McKinlay, C.A. (1923). Acute lymphadenosis compared with acute lymphatic leukemia. Arch. Intern. Med. 32: 82–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Epstein, M.S., Achong, B.G., and Barr, Y.M. (1964). Virus particles in cultured lymphoblasts from Burkitts’s lymphoma. Lancet 1: 702–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Epstein, M.A., Henle, G., Achong, B.G., and Barr, Y.M. (1965). Morphological and virological studies on a virus in cultured lymphoblasts from Burkitt’s lymphoma. Exp. Med. 121: 761–770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Evans, A.S. (1947). Experimental attempts to transmit infectious mononucleosis to man. Yale J. Biol. Med 20: 19–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Evans, A.S. (1950). Further experimental attempts to transmit infectious mononucleosis to man. J. Clin. Invest. 29: 508–512PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Evans, A.S. (1974). The history of infectious mononucleosis. Am. J. Med. Sci. 267: 189–195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Evans, A.S., Niederman, J.C., and McCollum, R.W. (1968). Seroepidemiologic studies of infectious mononucleosis with EBV virus. N. Engl. J. Med. 279: 1123–1127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fialkow, P.J., Klein, G., Gartlev, S.M., et al. (1970). Clonal origin for individual Burkitt tumors. Lancet 1:384–386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Filatow, N.J. (1885). Lektuse ob ostrikh infektsion Nikh Lolieznyak (Lectures on Acute Infectious Disease of Children). Moscow, U. Deitel.Google Scholar
  30. Fullerton, H.W., and Smith, J. (1951). Glandular fever in modem practice. In Infectious Fevers. H.S. Banks (ed.) New York, P.B. Hoeber, Inc.), pp. 939–947.Google Scholar
  31. Gerber, P., Lucas, S., Nonoyama, M., et al. (1972). Oral excretion of Epstein-Barr virus by healthy subjects and patients with infectious mononucleosis. Lancet 2: 988–989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gulland, G. L., and Goodale, A. (1925). The blood A guide to its examination and the diagnosis and treatment of its diseases, 3rd ed. Edinburgh, W. Green and Sons, pp. 313–314.Google Scholar
  33. Hall, A. J. (1915). A case resembling acute lymphatic leukemia ending in complete recovery. Proc. Royal. Soc. Med (Medical Section) 8: 15–19.Google Scholar
  34. Hanto, D.W., Frizzera, G., Gajl-Peczalska, J., et al. (1981). The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the pathogenesis of post-transplant lymphoma. Transplantation Proc. 13: 756–760.Google Scholar
  35. Henle, G., and Henle, W. (1966). Immunofluorescence in cells derived from Burkitt lymphoma. J. Bacteriol. 91: 1248–1256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Henle, G., Henle, W., and Diehl, V. (1968). Relation of Burkitt’s tumor associated herpes-type virus to infectious mononucleosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 59: 94–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Henle, W., Henle, G., Burtin, P., et al. (1970). Antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus in nasopharyngeal carcinoma, other head and neck neoplasms and control groups. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 44: 225–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Hoagland, R.J. (1967). Infectious Mononucleosis, New York, Grune & Stratton.Google Scholar
  39. Horwitz, C.A., Henle, W., Henle, G., et al. (1977). Heterophile-negative infectious mononucleosis and mononucleosis-like illness. Laboratory confirmation of 43 cases. Am. J. Med 63: 947–957.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ireland, R.A., Baetjer, W.A., and Ruhrah, J., (1915). A case of lymphatic leukemia with apparent cure. JAMA 65: 948–949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jackson, J.M., and Smith, W.D. (1915). Lymphatic leukemia in acute infection, after removal of the spleen. Boston Med Surg. J. 172: 136–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Janeway, C.A., and Dammin, G.J. (1941). Studies on infectious mononucleosis. II. The relationship of the organisms of the genus Listerella to the disease as studied by the agglutination reaction. J. Clin. Invest. 20: 233–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Julianelle, L.A. (1940). The function of Listerella in infection. Ann. Intern. Med. 14: 608–620.Google Scholar
  44. Julianelle, L.A., Bierbaum, O.S., and Moore, C.V. (1944). Studies on infectious mononucleosis. Ann. Intern. Med 20: 281.Google Scholar
  45. Klemola, E., and Kaariainen, L. (1965). Cytomegalovirus as a possible cause of a disease resembling infectious mononucleosis. Br. Med. J. 2: 1099–1102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kolmer, J.A. (1939). Listeria monocytogenes in relation to the Wassermann and flocculation reactions in normal rabbits. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. Med. 42: 183–186.Google Scholar
  47. Longcope, W.T. (1922). Infectious mononucleosis (glandular fever) with a report of ten cases. Am. J. Med Sci. 164: 781–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mann, R.B., Jaffe, E.S., Braylan, R.C., et al. (1976). Non-endemic Burkitt’s lymphoma. A B-cell tumor related germinal centers. N. Engl. J. Med. 295: 685–691.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Miller, G., Niederman, J. C., and Andrews, L. L., (1973). Prolonged Epstein-Barr virus excretion after infectious mononucleosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 288: 229–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Misao, T., and Kobayashi, Y. (1955). Studies on infectious mononucleosis (glandular fever). I. Isolation of etiologic agent from blood, bone marrow and lymph node of a patient with infectious mononucleosis by using mice. Kyushu J. Med. Sci. 6: 145–152.Google Scholar
  51. Morse, P.E. (1921). Glandular fever. JAMA 77:1403–1404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Murray, G.D., Webb, R.A., and Swann, M.B.R. (1926). A disease of rabbits characterized by a large mononuclear leukocytosis, caused by a hitherto un- described bacillus Bacterium monocytogenes. J. Path. Biol. 29: 407–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Niederman, J.C., McCollum, R.W., Henle, G., and Henle, W. (1968). Infectious mononucleosis. Clinical manifestations in relation to EB virus antibodies. JAMA 203: 205–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Niederman, J.C., and Scott, R.B. (1965). Studies on infectious mononucleosis. Attempts to transmit the disease to human volunteers. Yale J. Biol Med. 38: 1–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Nyfelt, A. (1932). Klinische und experimentelle Untersuchungen über die mononucleosis infectiosa. Folia Haemat 47: 1–144.Google Scholar
  56. Ogino, T. (1958). Infectious mononucleosis in Japan with special reference to classifying into sporadic infectious mononucleosis and epidemic glandular fever. Kobe J. Med. Sci. 4: 59–90.Google Scholar
  57. Osler, W. (1910). Glandular fever. In Practice of Medicine. New York, Appleton, pp. 365–366.Google Scholar
  58. Osier, W. (1915). Comments on a case of acute leukemia with recovery. Proc. Roy. Soc. Med. (Medical Section) 8: 31.Google Scholar
  59. Paul, J.R., and Bunnell, W.W. (1932). The presence of heterophile antibodies in infectious mononucleosis. Am. J. Med Sci. 183: 90–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pfeiffer, E. (1889). Drüsenfieber. Jahrb f Kinderheilk 29: 257–264.Google Scholar
  61. Pons, C.A., and Julianelle, L.A. (1939). Isolation of Listerella monocytogenes from infectious mononucleosis. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. Med. 40: 360–362.Google Scholar
  62. Sawyer, R.N., Evans, A.S., Niederman, J.C., et al. (1971). Prospective studies of a group of Yale University freshmen. I. Occurrence of infectious mononucleosis. J. Infec. Dis. 123: 263–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Sohier, R., Lepine, P., and Sautter, V. (1940) Recherches sur la transmission experimentale de la mononucleose infectieuse au singe et ä I’homme. Ann. Inst. Pasteur 65: 50–62.Google Scholar
  64. Sprunt, T.P., and Evans, F.A. (1920). Mononuclear leukocytosis in reaction to acute infections (infectious mononucleosis). Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp. 31: 410–417.Google Scholar
  65. Strauch, B., Siegel, N., Andrews, L. L., et al. (1974). Oropharyngeal excretion of Epstein-Barr virus by renal transplant recipients and other patients treated with immunosuppressive drugs. Lancet 1: 234–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Taylor, A.W. (1953). Effects of glandular fever in acute leukemia. Br. Med. J. 1: 589–593.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Tidy, H. L. (1934). Glandular fever and infectious mononucleosis. Lancet 2:180–186; 236–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Tidy, H. L. and Daniel E. C. (1923). Glandular fever and infective mononucleosis. Lancet 2: 9–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tidy, H. L., and Morley, E. B. (1921). Glandular fever. Br. Med J 1: 452–456.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Türk, W. (1907). Septische Erkrankungen bei Verkümmerung des Granulozytensystems. Wien Klin. Wschr. 20: 157–162.Google Scholar
  71. University Health Physicians and P.H.L.S. Laboratories (1971). A joint investigation of infectious mononucleosis and its relationship to EB virus antibody. Br. Med J 4: 643–646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Van den Berghe, L., and Liessens, P. (1939). Transmission de la mononucleose infectieuse humaine (fievre ganglionnaire de Pfeiffer) au macacus rhesus et passages successes d’un virus filtrat. Compt. Rend Soc. Biol 130: 279–283.Google Scholar
  73. Webb, R.A. (1943) Listeria monocytogenes isolated from a case of infectious mononucleosis. Lancet 2:5–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. West, J.P. (1896). An epidemic of glandular fever. Arch. Pediatr. 13: 889–900.Google Scholar
  75. Williams, E. (1897). A note on the glandular fever of childhood. Lancet 1: 160–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wising, P.J. (1939) Some experiments with lymph gland material from cases of infectious mononucleosis. Acta Med. Scand. 98: 328–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wising, P. J. (1942a). A successful transmission of infectious mononucleosis to man by transfusion of heparinized blood? Acta Med. Scand. 109: 507–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wising, P.J. (1942b). A study of infectious mononucleosis from the etiological point of view. Acta Med. Scand Suppl 133: 1–102.Google Scholar
  79. Wolf, H., zur Hausen, H., and Becker, V. (1973). EB viral genomes in epithelial nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Nature 244: 245–246.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert T. Schooley

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations