Advertisement

General Characteristics of the Chesapeake Bay and Study Area

  • Kevin G. Sellner
  • Betty Ann Peters
Part of the Lecture Notes on Coastal and Estuarine Studies book series (COASTAL, volume 23)

Abstract

The Chesapeake Bay began to form 10 to 20 TYBP (thousand years before present) by the flooding of the Susquehanna River Valley that extended across the present continental shelf. During the last ice age, sea level was approximately 98 m below its present position (Schubel, 1981) and with the melting of glacial ice in North America, 5 to 15 TYBP, sea level began to rise at a rate of 1 m per century, advancing across the continental shelf at a rate of 15 m·yr−1. The rising sea drowned the valleys of the Susquehanna River and its tributaries, thereby forming the Chesapeake Bay. Sea level reached the present Bay mouth about 10 TYBP and its deepest penetration, to the mouth of the Sassafras River, 3 TYBP. For the last 3000 years, this rise has slowed and the current slight increase in sea level has been balanced by sediment accumulation (Schubel, 1981).

Keywords

Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Turbidity Maximum Thermal Plume Curtain Wall Maryland Department 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Baltimore Gas and Electric Company (BG&E) (1970) Environmental report Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant. Baltimore MD: BG&E: 64 pp.Google Scholar
  2. Biggs RB (1970) Sources and distribution of suspended sediment in northern Chesapeake Bay. Mar Geol 9:187–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Biggs RB (1978) Coastal bays. In: Davis RR Jr (ed) Coastal sedimentary environments. New York: Springer-Verlag: pp 69–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boynton WR, Kemp WM, Lubbers Lm, Wood KV and Keefe CW (1984) Maryland Office of Environmental Programs, Maryland Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Monitoring Program, Ecosystems Processes Component (EPC). Data Rept 1: UMCEES Ref No 84-109. Solomons, MD: Chesapeake Biological Laboratory Univ of MD: 44 pp.Google Scholar
  5. Boynton WR, Kemp WM, Garber JH and Barnes J (1986) Maryland Office of Environmental Programs, Maryland Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Monitoring Program, Ecosystem Processes Component (EPC). Level I data report No 3 (July 1985–May 1986). [UMCEES] CBL Ref No 86-56. Solomons, MD: Chesapeake Biological Laboratory Univ of MD: 52 PP.Google Scholar
  6. Carter HH, Regier RJ, Schiemer EW and Michael JA (1978) The summertime vertical distribution of dissolved oxygen at the Calvert Cliffs Generating Station; A physical interpretation. CBI Ref No 78-1 Spec Rept 60. Shady Side, MD: Johns Hopkins: 95 pp.Google Scholar
  7. Cloern JE, Alpine AE, Cole BE, Wong RLJ, Arthur JF and Ball MD (1983) River discharge controls phytoplankton dynamics in the northern San Francisco Bay estuary. Est Coastal Shelf Sci 16:415–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Coutant CC (1985) Striped bass temperature and dissolved oxygen: A speculative hypothesis. Trans Amer Fish Soc 114:31–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Davis HE, Webster DW and Krantz GE (1981) Maryland oyster spat survey, fall 1980. Maryland Sea Grant. College Park, MD: Tech Rept UM-SG-TS-81-03: 22 pp.Google Scholar
  10. Festa JF and Hansen DV (1978) Turbidity maxima in partially mixed estuaries: A two-dimensional numerical model. Est Coastal Mar Sci 7:347–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Flemer DA, Mackiernan GB, Nehlsen W and Tippie VK (1983) Chesapeake Bay: A profile of environmental change. Philadelphia, PA: US EPA: 200 pp.Google Scholar
  12. Gavrilas M and Wieland M (1985) Wind flows and dispersion conditions at Calvert Cliffs. Baltimore, MD: Baltimore Gas and Electric Co, Environmental Programs: 50 pp.Google Scholar
  13. Heinle DR (1974) An alternate grazing hypothesis for the Patuxent estuary. Chesapeake Sci 15:146–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Holland AF, Hiegel MH, Shaughnessy AT, Stroup CF and Ross EA (1984) Long-term benthic monitoring programs near the Morgantown and Calvert Cliffs power plants — third annual report (2 volumes, in draft). Columbia, MD: Martin Marietta Corporation.Google Scholar
  15. Holland AF, Hiegel MH, Koontz LE, Johnson GF and Polgar TT (1981) Interim report for long-term benthic monitoring programs in the vicinities of the Morgantown and Calvert Cliffs power plants. Rept PPSP-CC-81-2. Baltimore, MD: Power Plant Siting Prog: 35 PP.Google Scholar
  16. Krantz GE and Davis HA (1983) Maryland oyster spat survey fall 1982. Maryland Sea Grant. College Park, MD: Tech Rept UM-SG-TS-83-01: 14 pp.Google Scholar
  17. Lacy GK (1979) Thermal plume studies in the vicinity of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant 1977-1978. Rept No 79-8F: prepared for Maryland Department of Natural Resources Power Plant Siting Program. PA: Acad of Nat Sci of Phila: 290 pp.Google Scholar
  18. Lippson A J (1973) The Chesapeake Bay in Maryland. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins: 55 pp.Google Scholar
  19. Mackiernan GB, Flemer DA, Nehlsen W and Tippie VK (1983) State of the Bay. In: Tippie VK (ed) Chesapeake Bay: A framework for action. Philadelphia, PA: US EPA: pp 15–35.Google Scholar
  20. Malone TC, Kemp WM, Ducklow HW, Boynton WR, Tuttle JH and Jonas RB (1986) Lateral variation in the production and fate of phytoplankton in a partially stratified estuary. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 32:149–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Martin Marietta Corporation (1976a) Calvert Cliffs chemical thermometer thermal plume study. PPMP Technical Note 76-1, prepared for Maryland Department of Natural Resources Power Plant Siting Program: Baltimore, MD: Martin Marietta Corporation.Google Scholar
  22. Martin Marietta Corporation (1976b) Calvert Cliffs thermal plume survey September and November 1975. PPMP Technical Note 76-2, prepared for Maryland Department of Natural Resources Power Plant Siting Program: Baltimore, MD: Martin Marietta Corporation.Google Scholar
  23. Martin Marietta Corporation (1976c) Calvert Cliffs thermal plume survey March 1976 PPMP Technical Note 76-4, prepared for Maryland Department of Natural Resources Power Plant Siting Program: Baltimore, MD: Martin Marietta Corporation.Google Scholar
  24. Martin Marietta Corporation (1980) Summary of findings: Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant aquatic monitoring program (2 vols). Rept PPSP-CC-80-2: Baltimore, MD: Power Plant Siting Prog: Martin Marietta Corporation.Google Scholar
  25. Mountford NK, Holland AF and Mihursky JA (1977) Identifications and description of macrobenthic communities in the Calvert Cliffs region of the Chesapeake Bay. Chesapeake Sci 18:360–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) (1974-1979a) Maryland landings 1973-1978. Current Fisheries Statistics No 6414, 6714, 6914, 7214, 7512 and 7717. Washington DC: US Dept Commerce.Google Scholar
  27. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) (1974–1979b) Virginia landings 1973–1978. Current Fisheries Statistics No 6415, 6715, 6915, 7215, 7513 and 7718. Washington DC: US Dept Commerce.Google Scholar
  28. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) (1980) Maryland landings 1979. Current Fisheries Statistics No 8014. Washington DC: US Dept Commerce.Google Scholar
  29. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) (1981) Virginia landings 1979. Current Fisheries Statistics No 8015. Washington DC: US Dept Commerce.Google Scholar
  30. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) (1982–1984) Preliminary commercial fishery landings by state (Maryland and Virginia). Washington DC: US Dept Commerce: Nat Mar Fish Serv Resour Stat Div.Google Scholar
  31. Officer CB, Biggs RB, Taft JL, Cronin LE, Tyler MA and Boynton WR (1984) Chesapeake Bay anoxia: Origin, development and significance. Science 223:22–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Orth RJ and Moore KA (1983) Chesapeake Bay: An unprecedented decline in submerged aquatic vegetation. Science 222:51–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Price KS, Flemer DA, Taft JL, Mackiernan GB, Nehlsen W, Biggs RB, Burger NH and Blaylock DA (1985) Nutrient enrichment of Chesapeake Bay and its impact on the habitat of striped bass: A speculative hypothesis. Trans Amer Fish Soc 114:97–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Pritchard DW (1955) Estuarine circulation patterns. Proc Am Soc Civil Engrs 81:717/1–717/11.Google Scholar
  35. Pritchard DW (1967) Observations of circulation in coastal plain estuaries. In: Lauff G (ed) Estuaries. Washington DC: Amer Assoc Advancement Sci: pp 37–44.Google Scholar
  36. Schubel JR (1968) Turbidity maximum of the northern Chesapeake Bay. Science 161:1013–1015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Schubel JR (1981) The living Chesapeake. Baltimore MD: Johns Hopkins: 113 pp.Google Scholar
  38. Schubel JR and Carter HH (1977) Suspended sediment budget for Chesapeake Bay. In: Wiley M (ed) Estuarine processes, Vol II. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  39. Schubel JR and Hirschberg DJ (1977) Pb210-determined sedimentation rate and accumulation of metals in sediments at a station in Chesapeake Bay. Chesapeake Sci 18:379–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Seliger HH, Boggs JA and Biggley WH (1985) Catastrophic anoxia in the Chesapeake Bay in 1984. Science 228:70–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sellner KG (1983) Plankton productivity and biomass in a tributary of the upper Chesapeake Bay, I: Importance of size-fractionated phytoplankton productivity biomass and species composition in carbon export. Est Coastal Shelf Sci 17:197–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sellner KG and Horwitz RJ (1984) Plankton interactions in the Patuxent River estuary: Field studies of community composition and diversity with a deterministic model of the effects of Zooplankton grazing on phytoplankton carbon production of fecal matter sediment oxygen demand and nutrient regeneration. Rept No 82-14F: PA: Acad Nat Sci Phila:119 pp.Google Scholar
  43. Stewart RE (1962) Waterfowl populations in the upper Chesapeake region. Special scientific report Wildlife No 65: US Fish and Wildlife Service Bureau of Sports Fisheries and Wildlife.Google Scholar
  44. Taft JL, Taylor WR, Hartwig EO and Loftus R (1980) Seasonal oxygen depletion in Chesapeake Bay. Estuaries 3:242–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tuttle J, Malone T, Jonas R, Ducklow H and Cargo D (1985) Nutrient-dissolved oxygen dynamics Roles of phytoplankton and microheterotrophs under summer conditions. [UMCEES] CBL 85-39. Solomons, MD: Chesapeake Biological Laboratory Univ MD: 50 pp.Google Scholar
  46. Wells HW Jr, Katsanos SJ and Flanigan FH (1983) An introduction to Chesapeake Bay. In: Tippie VK (ed) Chesapeake Bay: A framework for action. PA: US EPA, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  47. Zeger S (1977) Thermal plume studies in the vicinity of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant August 1977. Rept No 77-38, prepared for Maryland Department of Natural Resources Power Plant Siting Program. PA: Acad Nat Sci Phila: 52 pp.Google Scholar
  48. Zeger S (1978) Thermal plume studies in the vicinity of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant November 1977 Rept No 78-13, prepared for Maryland Department of Natural Resources Power Plant Siting Program. PA: Acad Nat Sci Phila: 51 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kevin G. Sellner
  • Betty Ann Peters

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations