Motivation and Efficiency of Cognitive Performance

  • William Revelle
Part of the Recent Research in Psychology book series (PSYCHOLOGY)

Abstract

It is fitting in a book written in honor of Jack Atkinson’s lifelong contribution to the study of personality and human motivation to consider the motivational determinants of cumulative achievement. In this chapter I will show how parts of the theoretical framework outlined by Atkinson can be filled in to answer the question of what determines cumulative achievement. Figure 1 (adapted from Atkinson and Birch, 1978) gives an overview of the richness of Atkinson’s theory, and will serve as an outline of this chapter.

Keywords

Placebo Fatigue Caffeine Hull Amphetamine 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson, K. J. (1980). The current status of the Easterbrook hypothesis, unpublished manuscript, Northwestern University.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, K. J. (1985). Impulsivity, caffeine and task difficulty: A within subjects test of the Yerkes-Dodson Law. Unpublished manuscript, Colgate University.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, K. J., & Revelle, W. (1982). Impulsivity, caffeine, and proofreading: A test of the Easterbrook hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 8, 614–624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, K. J., & Revelle, W. (1983). The interactive effects of caffeine, impulsivity, and task demands on a visual search task. Personality and Individual Differences, 4, 127–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson, K. J., Revelle, W., & Lynch, M. J. (1985). Arousal and memory scanning: A comparison of two explanations for the Yerkes-Dodson effect. Unpublished manuscript, Colgate University.Google Scholar
  6. Atkinson, J. W. (1957). Motivational determinants of risk-taking behavior. Psychological Review, 64, 359–372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Atkinson, J. W. (1964). An introduction to motivation. New York: D. Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  8. Atkinson, J. W. (1974). Strength of motivation and efficiency of performance. In J.W. Atkinson & J.O. Raynor (Eds.), Motivation and achievement (pp. 117–142). New York: V.W. Winston.Google Scholar
  9. Atkinson, J. W., & Birch, D. (1970). The dynamics of action. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  10. Atkinson, J. W., & Birch, D. (1978). Introduction to motivation. New York: D. Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  11. Atkinson, J. W., & Cartwright, D. (1964). Some neglected variables in contemporary conceptions of decision and performance. Psychological Reports, 14, 575–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Benzuly, M. (1985). Caffeine and memory load: Their effect on analogical reasoning. Unpublished honor’s thesis. Northwestern University.Google Scholar
  13. Bolles, R. C. (1980). Some functionalists thoughts about regulation. In F. M. Toates & T. R. Halliday (Eds.), Analysis of motivational processes (pp. 63–75). London, Academic Press.Google Scholar
  14. Broadhurst, P. L. (1959). The interaction of task difficulty and motivation. The Yerkes-Dodson Law revived. Acta Psychologica, 16, 321–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Easterbrook, J. A. (1959). The effect of emotion on cue utilization and the organization of behavior. Psychological Review, 66, 183–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Eysenck, M. W. (1979). Anxiety, learning, and memory: A reconceptualization. Journal of Research in Personality, 13, 363–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Feather, N. T. (1961). The relationship of persistence at a task to expectation of success and achievement related motives. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63, 552–561.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Geen, R., & Kaiser, M. (1985). Test anxiety and performance on the Stroop color word task. Unpublished manuscript. University of Missouri.Google Scholar
  19. Gray, J. A. (1981). A critique of Eysenck’s theory of personality. In H. J. Eysenck (Ed.), A model for personality (pp. 246–276). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Halliday, T. R. (1980). Motivational systems and interactions between activities. in F. M. Toates & T. R. Halliday (Eds.), Analysis of motivational processes (pp. 205–220). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  21. Hamilton, J. O. (1974). Motivation and risk taking behavior: A test of Atkinson’s theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 29, 856–864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Heckhausen, H. (1967). The anatomy of achievement motivation. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  23. Hull, C. L. (1952). A behavior system. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Humphreys, M. S., & Revelle, W. (1984). Personality, motivation, and performance: A theory of the relationship between individual differences and information processing. Psychological Review, 91, 153–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kuhl, J., & Blankenship, V. (1979). The dynamic theory of achievement motivation: From episodic to dynamic thinking. Psychological Review, 85, 239–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kuhl, J., & Blankenship, V. (1979). Behavioral change in a constant environment: Shift to more difficult tasks with constant probability of success. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 551–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Leon, M. R., & Revelle, W. (1985). The effects of anxiety on analogical reasoning: A test of three theoretical models. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 1302–1315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Locke, E. A. (1968). Toward a theory of task motivation and incentives. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 3, 157–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ludlow, A. R. (1980). The evolution and simulation of a decision maker. In F. M. Toates & T. R. Halliday (Eds.), Analysis of motivational processes (pp. 273–296). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  30. McDougall, W. (1903). The nature of inhibitory processes within the nervous system. Brain, 26, 153–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McFarland, D. J. (1974). Motivational control systems analysis. Academic Press: London.Google Scholar
  32. Mulholland, T. M., Pellegrino, J. W., & Glaser, R. (1980). Components of geometric analogy solution. Cognitive Psychology, 12, 252–284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pachella, R. G. (1974). The interpretation of reaction time in informationprocessing research. In B. Kantowitz (Ed.), Human information processing: Tutorials in performance and cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  34. Revelle, W. (1973). Introversion/extraversion, skin conductance and performance under stress. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  35. Revelle, W., & Michaels, E. J. (1976). The theory of achievement motivation revisited: The implications of inertial tendencies. Psychological Review, 83, 394–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Revelle, W., Amarai, P., & Turriff, S. (1976). Introversion-extroversion, time stress, and caffeine: The effect on verbal performance. Science, 192, 149–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Revelle, W., Anderson, K. J., & Humphreys, M. S. (in press). Empirical tests and theoretical extensions of arousal-based theories of personality. In J. Stelau and H. J. Eysenck (Eds.), Personality dimensions and arousal. London: Plenum.Google Scholar
  38. Revelle, W., Humphreys, M. S., Simon, L., & Gilliland, K. (1980). The interactive effect of personality, time of day, and caffeine: A test of the arousal model. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 109, 1–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sarason, I.G. (1975). Anxiety and self-preoccupation. In I. G. Sarason & C. D. Spielberger (Eds.), Anxiety and stress, Vol. 2. Washington, DC: Hemisphere.Google Scholar
  40. Schneider, K., & Posse, N. (1982). Risk taking in achievement-oriented situations: Do people really maximize affect of competence information? Motivation and Emotion, 6, 259–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Spence, J. T., & Spence, K. W. (1966). The motivational components of manifest anxiety: Drive and drive stimuli. In C. D. Spielberger (Ed.), Anxiety and behavior. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  42. Spence, K. W., Farber, I. E., & McFann, H. H. (1956). The relation of anxiety (drive) level to performance in competitional and non-competitional paired-associates learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 52, 296–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Toates, F. M., & Halliday, T. R. (Eds.). (1980). Analysis of motivational processes. London: Academic Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  44. Weiner, B., & Schneider, K. (1971). Drive versus cognitive theory: A reply to Boor and Harmon. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 18, 258–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wine, J. (1971). Test anxiety and direction of attention. Psychological Bulletin, 76, 92–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Yerkes, R. M., & Dodson, J. D. (1908). The relation of strength of stimuli to rapidity of habit-formation. Journal of Comparative Neurology and Psychology, 18, 459–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zeigarnik, B. (1938). [On finished and unfinished tasks.] In W. D. Ellis (Ed.), A source book of Gestalt Psychology. New York: Harcourt Brace. (Reprinted and translated from Psychological Forschung, 1927, 9, 1–85.)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • William Revelle
    • 1
  1. 1.Northwestern UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations