Age Differences in Suggestibility: Narrowing the Uncertainties

  • Stephen J. Ceci
  • David F. Ross
  • Michael P. Toglia


In the late seventeenth century the village of Salem, Massachusetts was gripped with what, in retrospect, seems like a series of strange and inexplicable events. During a three-month period in 1691, twenty-one citizens of Salem were accused, tried, and found guilty of practicing witchcraft and sorcery. The accused spanned all ages, social classes, and sexes. All but one were sentenced to death.


Original Information Misleading Information Stimulus Combination Original Trace Original Story 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Binet, A. (1900). La suggestibilité. Paris: Schleicher Frères.Google Scholar
  2. Ceci, S. J. & Bronfenbrenner, U. (1985). “Don’t forget to take the cupcakes out of the oven”: Memory, strategic time-monitoring, and context. Child Development, 56, 152–164.Google Scholar
  3. Ceci, S. J., Ross, D. F., & Toglia, M. P. (in press). Suggestibility of children’s memory: Psycho-legal implications. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.Google Scholar
  4. Goodman, G. (1984). Children’s testimony in historical perspective. Journal of Social Issues, 40, 9–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Loftus, E. (1976). Unconscious transference in eyewitness identification. Law and Psychology Review, 2, 93–98.Google Scholar
  6. Loftus, E., & Davies, G. (1984). Distortions in the memory of children. Journal of Social Issues, 40, 51–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. McCloskey, M., & Zaragoza, M. (1985). Misleading postevent information and memory for events: Arguments and evidence against memory impairment hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 114, 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Messerschmidt, R. (1933). The suggestibility of boys and girls between the ages of six and sixteen. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 43, 422–437.Google Scholar
  9. Pear, T., & Wyatt, S. (1914). The testimony of normal and mentally defective children. British Journal of Psychology, 3, 388–419.Google Scholar
  10. Ross, D., & Ceci, S. J. (1984). Effects of vague familiarity on recognition accuracy: More on factors implicated in eyewitness reports. Paper presented at the Eastern Psychological Association meeting, Baltimore, MD. April.Google Scholar
  11. Schneider, W. (1984). Developmental trends in the metamemory-memory behavior relationship: An integrative review. In D. Forest-Pressley, G. MacKinnon, & T. G. Waller (Eds.), Cognition, metamemory, and human performance Vol. 1 (pp. 57–109 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  12. Seth, D. (1967). Stories of great witch trials. Boston: Arthur & Butler.Google Scholar
  13. Seth, D. (1969). Chidlren against witches. New York: Taplinger.Google Scholar
  14. Stern, W. (1910). Abstracts of lectures on the psychology of testimony and on the study of individuality. American Journal of Psychology, 21, 270–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Upham, C. W. (1867). Salem witchcraft; with an account of Salem Village. Boston: Wiggin & Cunt.Google Scholar
  16. Varendonck, J. (1911). Les temoignages d’enfants dans proces retentissant. Archives de Psychologie, 11, 129–171.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen J. Ceci
  • David F. Ross
  • Michael P. Toglia

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations