Advertisement

Vessel Injury, Thrombosis, and the Progression and Regression of Atherosclerotic Lesions

  • J. Fraser Mustard
  • Raelene L. Kinlough-Rathbone
  • Marian A. Packham
  • M. Daria Haust

Abstract

The relationship of thrombosis to the development of early and advanced atherosclerotic lesions, and the clinical complications of atherosclerosis will be discussed in this presentation. Thrombosis is initiated by vessel injury and the platelets that adhere to an injury site cause smooth muscle cell proliferation. The duration of vessel wall reactivity after an injury also affects the extent of thrombosis and vessel wall changes. An important consideration in injury-mediated atherosclerosis is whether the extent of atherosclerosis can be reduced if the injurious factors are removed or inhibited. To investigate some of these relationships, several ways of monitoring vessel injury and thrombosis have been developed.

Keywords

Atherosclerotic Lesion Endothelial Injury Vessel Injury Coronary Artery Spasm Mural Thrombus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Ross R (1981) Atherosclerosis: A problem of the biology of arterial wall cells and their interactions with blood components. Arteriosclerosis 1: 293–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mustard JF, Packham MA, Kinlough-Rathbone RL (1981) Platelets, atherosclerosis and clinical complications. In: Moore S (ed) Vascular injury and atherosclerosis. Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, pp 79–110Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ross R, Vogel A (1978) The platelet-derived growth factor. Cell 14: 203–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Glenn K, Ross R (1981) Human monocyte-derived growth factor(s) for mesenchymal cells: activation of secretion by endotoxin and concanavalin A [Con A]. Cell 25: 603–615PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dzoga K, Vesselinovitch D, Fraser R, Wissler RW (1971) The effect of lipoproteins on the growth of aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro. Am J Pathol 62: 32aGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Minick CR, Fabricant CG, Fabricant J, Litrenta MM (1979) Atheroarteriosclerosis induced by infection with a herpesvirus. Am J Pathol 96: 673–706PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Goldsmith HL (1972) The flow of model particles and blood cells and its relation to thrombogenesis. In: Spaet TH (ed) Progress in hemostasis and thrombosis, vol 1. Grune and Stratton, New York, pp 97–139Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Geer JC, Haust MD (1972) Smooth muscle cells in atherosclerosis. In: Pollak OJ, Simms HS, Kirk JE (eds) Monographs on atherosclerosis vol 2. S Karger, Basel, pp 1–140Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Duguid JB (1946) Thrombosis as a factor in the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis. J Pathol Bacteriol 58: 207–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Morgan AD (1956) The pathogenesis of coronary occlusion. Blackwell Scientific Publications, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Crawford T (1977) Pathology of ischaemic heart disease. Butterworths, London, pp 1–170Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Woolf N, Bradley JWP, Crawford T, Carstairs KC (1968) Experimental mural thrombi in the pig aorta. The early natural history. Br J Exp Pathol 49: 257–264Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jorgensen L, Rowsell HC, Hovig T, Mustard JF (1967) Resolution and organization of platelet-rich mural thrombi in carotid arteries of swine. Am J Pathol 51: 681–719PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Moore S (1973) Thromboatherosclerosis in normolipemic rabbits: a result of continued endothelial damage. Lab Invest 29: 478–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Björkerud S, Bondjers G (1976) Repair responses and tissue lipid after experimental injury to the artery. Ann NY Acad Sci 275: 180–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bondjers G, Brattsand R, Hansson GK, Björkerud S (1976) Cholesterol transfer and content in aortic regions with defined endothelial integrity from rabbits with moderate hypercholesterolemia. Nutr Metab 20: 452–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Richardson M, Ihnatowycz I, Moore S (1980) Glycosaminoglycan distribution in rabbit aortic wall following balloon catheter deendothelialization. An ultrastructural study. Lab Invest 43: 509–516Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Minick CR (1981) Synergy of arterial injury and hypercholesterolemia in atherosclerosis. In: Moore S (ed) Vascular injury and atherosclerosis. Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, pp 149–173Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Moore S (1981) Injury mechanisms in atherogenesis. In: Moore S (ed) Vascular injury and atherosclerosis. Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, pp 131–148Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Barnett HJM (1976) Pathogenesis of transient ischemic attacks. In: Scheinberg P (ed) Cerebrovascular diseases. Raven Press, New York, pp 1–21Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gunning AJ, Pickering GW, Robb-Smith AHT, Russell RR (1964) Mural thrombosis of the internal carotid artery and subsequent embolism. Q J Med 33: 155–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Russell RWR (1961) Observations on the retinal blood vessels in monocular blindness. Lancet 2: 1422–1428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chandler AB, Chapman I, Erhardt LR, Roberts WC, Schwartz CJ, Sinapius D, Spain DM, Sherry S, Ness PM, Simon TL (1974) Coronary thrombosis in myocardial infarction. Report of a workshop on the role of coronary thrombosis in the pathogenesis of acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 34: 823–833Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Maseri A, L’Abbate A, Baroldi G, Chierchia S, Marzilli M, Ballestra AM, Severi S, Parodi 0, Biagini A, Distante A, Pesola A (1978) Coronary vasospasm as a possible cause of myocardial infarction. A conclusion derived from the study of “preinfarction” angina. N Engl J Med 299: 1271–1277Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Braunwald E (1978) Coronary spasm and acute myocardial infarction--new possibility for treatment and prevention. N Engl J Med 299: 1301–1302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Haerem JW (1978) Sudden, unexpected coronary death. The occurrence of platelet aggregates in the epicardial and myocardial vessels of man. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand [A] 265: 7–47Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jorgensen L, Rowsell HC, Hovig T, Glynn MF, Mustard JF (1967) Adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation and myocardial infarction in swine. Lab Invest 17: 616–644PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Conti CR (1980) Coronary artery spasm. Circulation 61: 862–864PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Oliva PB, Breckenridge JC (1977) Arteriographic evidence of coronary artery spasm in acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 56: 366–374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ganz W (1981) Editorial. Coronary spasm in myocardial infarction: fact or fiction? Circulation 63: 487–488PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fulton GP, Akers RP, Lutz BR (1953) White thromboemboli and vascular fragility in hamster cheek pouch after anticoagulants. Blood 8: 140–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    McFarlane RG (1972) Haemostasis. In: Biggs R (ed) Human blood coagulation, haemostasis and thrombosis. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp 543–585Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gertz SD, Uretsky G, Wajnberg R, Navot N, Gotsman MS (1981) Endothelial cell damage and thrombus formation after partial arterial constriction: relevance to the role of coronary artery spasm in the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction. Circulation 63: 476–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Maseri A, Chierchia S, L’Abbate A (1980) Pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the clinical events associated with atherosclerotic heart disease. Circulation 62 (Suppl V): 3–13Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kniker WT, Cochrane CG (1968) The localization of circulating immune complexes in experimental serum sickness. The role of vasoactive amines and hydrodynamic forces. J Exp Med 127: 119–135Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Harker LA, Ross R, Slichter SJ, Scott CR (1976) Homocystineinduced arteriosclerosis. The role of endothelial cell injury and platelet response in its genesis. J Clin Invest 58: 731–741Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mason RG, Sharp D, Chuang HYK, Mohammad F (1977) The endothelium. Roles in thrombosis and hemostasis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 101: 61–64Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mustard JF, Packham MA, Kinlough-Rathbone RL (1981) Mechanisms in thrombosis. In: Bloom AL, Thomas DP (eds) Haemostasis and thrombosis. Churchill Livingstone, London, pp 503–526Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hendriksen T, Evensen SA, Carlander B (1979) Injury to human endothelial cells induced by low-density lipoproteins. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 39: 361–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hessler JR, Robertson AL Jr, Chisholm GM (1979) LDL-induced cytotoxicity and its inhibition in human vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells in culture. Atherosclerosis 32: 213–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gerrity RG, Caplan BA, Richardson M, Cade JF, Hirsh J, Schwartz CJ (1975) Endotoxin-induced endothelial injury and repair. 1. Endothelial cell turnover in the aorta of the rabbit. Exp Mol Pathol 23: 379–385Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Curwen KD, Gimbrone MA Jr, Handin RI (1980) In vitro studies of thromboresistance. The role of prostacyclin (PGI2) in platelet adhesion to cultured normal and virally transformed human vascular endothelial cells. Lab Invest 42: 366–374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Goldsmith HL, Karino T (1979) Mechanically induced thromboemboli. In: Hwang NHC, Gross DR, Patel DJ (eds) Quantitative cardiovascular studies. Clinical and research applications of engineering principles. University Park Press, Baltimore, pp 289–351Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Chesney CM, Harper E, Colman RW (1974) Human platelet collagenase. J Clin Invest 53: 1647–1654PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Legrand Y, Pignaud G, Caen JP (1977) Human blood platelet elastase and proelastase. Activation of proelastase and release of elastase after adhesion of platelets to collagen. Haemostasis 6: 180–189Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Sacks T, Moldow CF, Craddock PR, Bowers TK, Jacob HS (1978) Oxygen radicals mediate endothelial cell damage by complement-stimulated granulocytes. An in vitro model of immune vascular damage. J Clin Invest 61: 1161–1167Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Harlan JM, Killen PD, Harker LA, Striker GE, Wright DG (1981) Neutrophil-mediated endothelial injury in vitro. Mechanisms of cell detachment. J Clin Invest 68: 1394–1403Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Mustard JF, Movat HZ, MacMorine DRL, Senyi A (1965) Release of permeability factors from the blood platelet. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 119: 988–991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Mustard JF, Packham MA (1978) The reaction of the blood to injury. In: Movat HZ (ed) Inflammation, immunity and hypersensitivity. Harper $ Row, New York, pp 557–664Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Fry DL (1976) Hemodynamic forces in atherogenesis. In: Scheinberg P (ed) Cerebrovascular diseases. Raven Press, New York, pp 77–95Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Shimamoto T (1974) Contraction of endothelial cells as a key mechanism in atherogenesis and treatment of atherosclerosis with endothelial cell relaxants. In: Schettler G, Weizel A (eds) Atherosclerosis III. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 64–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Constantinides P, Robinson M (1969) Ultrastructural injury of arterial endothelium. II. Effects of vasoactive amines. Arch Pathol 88: 106–112Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Robertson AL Jr, Khairallah PA (1973) Arterial endothelial permeability and vascular disease: the “trap door” effect. Exp Mol Pathol 18: 241–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Joris I, Majno G (1981) Medial changes in arterial spasm induced by L-norepinephrine. Am J Pathol 105: 212–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Booyse FM, Osikowicz G, Quarfoot AJ (1981) Effects of chronic oral consumption of nicotine on the rabbit aortic endothelium. Am J Pathol 102: 93–102Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Becker CG, Dubin T, Wiedemann HP (1976) Hypersensitivity to tobacco antigen. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 73: 1712–1716PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Becker CG, Levi R, Zavecz J (1979) Induction of IgE antibodies to antigen isolated from tobacco leaves and from cigarette smoke condensate. Am J Pathol 96: 249–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Asmussen I, Kjeldsen K (1975) Intimai ultrastructure of human umbilical arteries. Observations on arteries from newborn children of smoking and nonsmoking mothers. Circ Res 36: 579–589Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Editorial (1980) How does smoking harm the heart? Br Med J 3: 573–574Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Honour AJ, Russell RWR (1962) Experimental platelet embolism. Br J Exp Pathol 43: 350–362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Baumgartner HR (1973) The role of blood flow in platelet adhesion, fibrin deposition and formation of mural thrombi. Microvasc Res 5: 167–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Groves HM, Kinlough-Rathbone RL, Richardson M, Moore S, Mustard JF (1979) Platelet interaction with damaged rabbit aorta. Lab Invest 40: 194–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Clowes AW, Collazzo RE, Karnovsky MJ (1978) A morphologic and permeability study of luminal smooth muscle cells after arterial injury in the rat. Lab Invest 39: 141–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Groves HM, Kinlough-Rathbone RL, Richardson M, J$rgensen L, Moore S, Mustard JF (1982) Thrombin generation and fibrin formation following injury to rabbit neointima: studies of vessel wall reactivity and platelet survival. Lab Invest 46: 605–612Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Piepgras DG, Sundt TM Jr, Didisheim P (1976) Effect of anticoagulants and inhibitors of platelet aggregation on thrombotic occlusion of endarterectomized cat carotid arteries. Stroke 7: 248–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Meuleman DG, Vogel GMT, van Delft AML (1980) Effects of intra-arterial cannulation on blood platelet consumption in rats. Thromb Res 20: 45–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Winocour PD, Cattaneo M, Kinlough-Rathbone RL, Mustard JF (1981) Vessel injury, thrombosis and platelet survival. Thromb Haemost 46: 290Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kinlough-Rathbone RL, Packham MA, Mustard JF (1981) Platelet survival in relation to vessel wall injury. Thromb Haemost 46: 248Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Mustard JF, Murphy EA (1963) Effect of smoking on blood coagulation and platelet survival in man. Br Med J 1: 846–849PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Fuster V, Cheseboro JH, Frye RL, Elveback LR (1981) Platelet survival and the development of coronary artery disease in the young adult: effects of cigarette smoking, strong family history and medical therapy. Circulation 63: 546–551PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Constantinides P (1981) Overview of studies on regression of atherosclerosis. Artery 9: 30–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Malinow MR (1980) Brief reviews. Atherosclerosis: regression in nonhuman primates. Circ Res 46: 311–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Berenson GS, Radhakrishnamurthy B, Srinivasan SR, Dalferes ER Jr, Malinow MR (1981) Chemical changes in the arterial wall during regression of atherosclerosis in monkeys. Artery 9: 44–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Armstrong ML (1976) Regression of atherosclerosis. Atheroscler Rev 1: 137–182Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Friedman RJ, Moore S, Singal DP, Gent M (1976) Regression of injury-induced atheromatous lesions in rabbits. Arch Pathol Lab Med 100: 189–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Fry DL (1976) Hemodynamic forces in atherogenesis. In: Scheinberg P (ed) Cerebrovascular diseases. Raven Press, New York, pp 77–95Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Caro CG (1977) Mechanical factors in atherogenesis. In: Hwang NHC, Normann NA (eds) Cardiovascular flow dynamics and measurements. University Park Press, Baltimore, pp 473–487Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Cooper R, Stamler J, Dyer A, Garside D (1978) The decline in mortality from coronary heart disease, USA 1968–1975. J Chronic Dis 31: 709–720PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Levy RI (1981) Declining mortality in coronary heart disease. Arteriosclerosis 1: 312–325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Walker WJ (1977) Changing United States life-style and declining vascular mortality: cause or coincidence? N Engl J Med 297: 163–165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Stamler J (1979) Research related to risk factors. Circulation 60: 1575–1587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gordon T, Kannel WB, McGee D, Dawber TR (1979) Death and coronary attacks in men after giving up cigarette smoking. Lancet 2: 1345–1348Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Wilhelmsson C, Vedin JA, Elmfeldt D, Tibblin G, Wilhelmsen L (1975) Smoking and myocardial infarction. Lancet 1: 415–420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Hjermann I, Byre KV, Holme I, Leren P (1981) Effect of diet and smoking intervention on the incidence of coronary heart disease. Report from the Oslo Study Group of a randomised trial in healthy men. Lancet 2: 1303–1316Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Strong JP, Guzman MA (1980) Decrease in coronary atherosclerosis in New Orleans. Lab Invest 43: 297–301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Roth D, Kostuk WJ (1980) Noninvasive and invasive demonstration of spontaneous regression of coronary artery disease. Circulation 62: 889–896Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Blankenhorn DH, Sanmarco ME (1979) Editorial. Angiography for study of lipid-lowering therapy. Circulation 59: 212–214Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Rafflenbeul W, Smith LR, Rogers WJ, Mantle JA, Rackley CE, Russell RO Jr (1979) Quantitative coronary arteriography. Coronary anatomy of patients with unstable angina pectoris re-examined one year after optimal medical therapy. Am J Cardiol 43: 699–707Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Hollander W, Kirkpatrick B, Paddock J, Colombo M (1979) Studies on the progression and regression of coronary and peripheral atherosclerosis in the cynomolgus monkey. 1. Effects of dipyridamole and aspirin. Exp Mol Pathol 30: 55–73Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Gaynor E, Bouvier CA, Spaet TH (1968) Circulating endothelial cells in endotoxin treated rabbits. Clin Res 16: 535Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hladovec J, Rossmann P (1973) Circulating endothelial cells isolated together with platelets and the experimental modification of their counts in rats. Thromb Res 3: 665–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Bensoussan D, Levy-Toledano S, Passa P, Caen J, Canivet J (1975) Platelet hyperaggregation and increased level of von Willebrand factor in diabetics with retinopathy. Diabetologia 11: 307–312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Brinkhous KM, Sultzer DL, Reddick RL, Griggs TR (1980) Elevated plasma von Willebrand factor (vWF) levels as an index of acute endothelial injury: use of a hypotonic injury model in rats. Fed Proc 39: 630Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Cucuianu MP, Missits I, Olinic N, Roman S (1980) Increased ristocetin-cofactor in acute myocardial infarction: a component of the acute phase reaction. Thromb Haemost 43: 41–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Loskutoff DJ, Edgington TS (1977) Synthesis of a fibrinolytic activator and inhibitor by endothelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74: 3903–3907PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Shepro D, Schleef R, Hechtman HB (1980) Plasminogen activator activity by cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. Life Sci 26: 415–422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Mustard JF (1978) Platelet survival. Thromb Haemost 40: 154–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Mustard JF, Packham MA, Kinlough-Rathbone RL (1978) Platelet survival. In: Day HJ, Holmsen H, Zucker MB (eds) Platelet function testing. DHEW Publication no. (NIH) 78–1087, US. Govt Printing Office, Washington, DC, pp 545–560Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Adelman B, Stemerman MB, Mennell D, Handin RI (1981) The interaction of platelets with aortic subendothelium: Inhibition of adhesion and secretion by prostaglandin I2. Blood 58: 198–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Goldberg ID, Stemerman MB, Handin RI (1980) Vascular permeation of platelet factor 4 after endothelial injury. Science 209: 611–612PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kaplan KL, Owen J (1981) Plasma levels of ß-thromboglobulin and platelet factor 4 as indices of platelet activation in vivo. Blood 57: 199–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Zahavi J, Kakkar VV (1980) ß-thromboglobulin–a specific marker of in vivo platelet release reaction. Thromb Haemost 44: 23–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Addonizio VP Jr, Smith JB, Guiod LR, Strauss JF III, Colman RW, Edmunds LH Jr (1979) Thromboxane synthesis and platelet protein release during simulated extracorporeal circulation. Blood 54: 371–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Davies GC, Sobel M, Salzman EW (1980) Elevated plasma fibrinopeptide A and thromboxane B2, levels during cardiopulmonary bypass. Circulation 61: 808–814PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Files JC, Malpass TW, Yee EK, Ritchie JL, Harker LA (1981) Studies of human platelet a-granule release in vivo. Blood 58: 607–618PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Sobel M, Salzman EW, Davies GC, Handin RI, Sweeney J, Ploetz J, Kurland G (1981) Circulating platelet products in unstable angina pectoris. Circulation 63: 300–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Smitherman TC, Milan M, Woo J, Willerson JT, Frenkel EP (1981) Elevated beta-thromboglobulin in peripheral venous blood of patients with acute myocardial ischemia: direct evidence for enhanced platelet reactivity in vivo. Am J Cardiol 48: 395–402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Lewy RI, Wiener L, Walinsky P, Lefer AM, Silver MJ, Smith JB (1980) Thromboxane release during pacing-induced angina pectoris: possible vasoconstrictor influence in the coronary vasculature. Circulation 61: 1165–1171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Hirsh PD, Hillis LD, Campbell WB, Firth BG, Willerson JT (1981) Release of prostaglandins and thromboxane into the coronary circulation in patients with ischemic heart disease. N Engl J Med 304: 685–691PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Robertson RM, Robertson D, Roberts LJ, Maas RL, Garret AF, Friesinger GC, Oates JA (1981) Thromboxane A2 in vasotonic angina pectoris. Evidence from direct measurements and inhibitor trials. N Engl J Med 304: 998–1003Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    de Boer AC, Turpie AGG, Butt RW, Johnston RV, Genton E (1982) Platelet release and thromboxane synthesis in symptomatic coronary artery disease. Circulation 66: 327–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    de Boer AC, Turpie AGG, Genton E (1982) Chemistry, measurement and clinical significance of platelet specific proteins. In: Clinical reviews in clinical and laboratory sciences. Vol 18. CRC Press Inc, Boca Raton, Florida, pp 183–211Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Pumphrey CW, Dawes J (1981) Elevation of plasma ß-thromboglobulin in patients with prosthetic cardiac valves. Thromb Res 22: 147–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Dudczak R, Niessner H, Thaler E, Lechner K, Kletter K, Frischauf H, Domanig E, Aicher H (1981) Plasma concentration of platelet-specific proteins and fibrinopeptide A in patients with artificial heart valves. Haemostasis 10: 186–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Packham MA, Mustard JF, Guccione MA, Winocour PD, Groves HM, Rand ML, Kinlough-Rathbone RL (1979) Investigation of in vivo factors that may influence platelet survival and density. Thromb Haemost 42: 328 (abstr)Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Clagett GP, Russo M, Hufnagel H, Collins GJ Jr, Rich NM (1980) Platelet serotonin changes in dogs with prosthetic aortic grafts. J Surg Res 28: 223–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Beurling-Harbury C, Galvan CA (1978) Acquired decrease in platelet secretory ADP associated with increased postoperative bleeding in post-cardiopulmonary bypass patients and in patients with severe valvular heart disease. Blood 52: 13–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Kaplan KL, Nossel HL, Drillings M, Lesznik G (1978) Radioimmunoassay of platelet factor 4 and ß-thromboglobulin: development and application to studies of platelet release in relation to fibrinopeptide A generation. Br J Haematol 39: 129–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Nossel HL, Butler VP Jr, Canfield RE, Yudelman I, Ti M, Spanondis K, Soland T (1975) Potential use of fibrinopeptide A measurements in the diagnosis and management of thrombosis. Thromb Haemost 33: 426–434Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Bilezikian SB, Nossel HL, Butler VP Jr, Canfield RE (1975) Radioimmunoassay of fibrinopeptide B and kinetics of fibrinopeptide cleavage by different enzymes. J Clin Invest 56: 438–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Salimi A, Oliver GC Jr, Lee J, Sherman LA (1977) Continued incorporation of circulating radiolabeled fibrinogen into preformed coronary artery thrombi. Circulation 56: 213–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Ritchie JL, Stratton JR, Thiele B, Hamilton GW, Warrick LN, Huang TW, Harker LA (1981) Indium-111 platelet imaging for detection of platelet deposition in abdominal aneurysms and prosthetic arterial grafts. Am J Cardiol 47: 882–889PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Davies RA, Thakur ML, Berger HJ, Wackers FJT, Gottschalk A, Zaret BL (1981) Imaging the inflammatory response to acute myocardial infarction in man using indium-111-labeled autologous platelets. Circulation 63: 826–832PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 1.
    Haust MD (1971) The morphogenesis and fate of potential and early atherosclerotic lesions in man. Hum Pathol 2: 1–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 2.
    Haust MD (1977) Thrombosis in the inception and progression of coronary atherosclerotic lesions. In: Schettler G, Horsch A, Morl H, Orth H, Weizel A (eds) Der Herzinfarkt. FK Schattauer Verlag, Stuttgart-New York, pp 120–135Google Scholar
  126. 3.
    Haust MD (1978) Atherosclerosis in childhood. In: Rosenberg HS, Bolande RP (eds) Perspectives in pediatric pathology, Vol 4. Year Book Medical Publishers Inc, Chicago, pp 155–216Google Scholar
  127. 4.
    Haust MD (1978) Light and electron microscopy of human atherosclerotic lesions. Adv Exp Med Biol 104: 33–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 5.
    Haust MD (1978) Zur Morphologie der Arteriosklerose. Internist (Berlin) 19: 621–626Google Scholar
  129. 6.
    Haust MD (1981) The natural history of atherosclerotic lesions. In: Moore S (ed) Vascular injury and atherosclerosis, Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, pp 1–23Google Scholar
  130. 7.
    Haust MD (1982) Atherosclerosis; - lesions and sequelae. In: Silver MD (ed) Cardiovascular pathology. Churchill-Livingston, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  131. 8.
    Haust MD, More RH (1960) The thrombotic basis of arteriosclerosis. Heart Bull 9: 90–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 9.
    Movat HZ, Haust MD, More RH (1959) The morphologic elements in the early lesions of arteriosclerosis. Am J Pathol 35: 93–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 10.
    Mustard JF (1967) Recent advances in molecular pathology: a review. Platelet aggregation, vascular injury and atherosclerosis. Exp Mol Pathol 7: 366–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 11.
    Mustard JF (1975) Function of blood platelets and their role in thrombosis. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc 87: 104–127Google Scholar
  135. 12.
    Chandler AB (1972) Thrombosis in the development of coronary atherosclerosis. In: Likoff W, Segal BL, Insull W Jr, Moyer JH (eds) Atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Grune and Stratton Inc, New York, p 28Google Scholar
  136. 13.
    Chandler AB (1974) Mechanisms and frequency of thrombosis in the coronary circulation. Thromb. Res. 4 (Suppl): 3–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 14.
    Chandler AB, Pope JT (1975) Arterial thrombosis in atherogenesis. A survey of the frequency of incorporation of thrombi into atherosclerotic plaques. In: Hautvast JGAJ, Hermus RJJ, Van Der Haar F (eds) Blood and arterial wall in atherogenesis and arterial thrombosis. EJ Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands, pp 111–118Google Scholar
  138. 15.
    Geissinger HD, Mustard JF, Rowsell HC (1962) The occurrence of microthrombi on the aortic endothelium of swine. Can Med Assoc J 87: 405–408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 16.
    Murphy EA, Rowsell HC, Downie HG, Robinson GA, Mustard JF (1962) Encrustation and atherosclerosis: the analogy between early in vivo lesions and deposits which occur in extracorporeal circulations. Can Med Assoc J 87: 259–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 17.
    Hudson J, McCaughey WTE (1974) Mural thrombosis and atherogenesis in coronary arteries and aorta. An investigation using antifibrin and antiplatelet sera. Atherosclerosis 19: 543–553Google Scholar
  141. 18.
    Haust MD (to be published) Atherosclerosis and smooth muscle cells. In: Stephens NL (ed) Biochemistry of smooth muscle. CRC Press Inc, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Fraser Mustard
  • Raelene L. Kinlough-Rathbone
  • Marian A. Packham
  • M. Daria Haust

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations