Population Crosses and the Genetic Structure of Milkweed Bug Life Histories

  • Hugh Dingle
  • William S. Blau
  • Carl Kice Brown
  • Joseph P. Hegmann
Part of the Proceedings in Life Sciences book series (LIFE SCIENCES)


The fitness of a given phenotype is a direct consequence of the schedule of behavior, fecundity, and mortality that constitutes a life history. For this reason life histories are major adaptations of unique importance to general Darwinism (Bell 1980). As with other complex adaptations life histories consist not of single characters, but of sets of phenotypic traits that covary and function together (Frazetta 1975). Such sets often are referred to as “strategies” or “tactics” and much theoretical and empirical effort has been devoted to attempting to understand the evolution of the complex known as a “life history strategy” (Bell 1980, Stearns 1976, 1977). Births and deaths are most closely related to fitness and have drawn most of the attention, but behavior is also an important component of life histories, especially as it confers flexibility on where and when to breed (Istock 1978 and Chapter 1, this volume, Nichols et al. 1976, Taylor and Taylor 1977, 1978). Two important elements of insect behavior are migration and diapause (Dingle 1981, Solbreck 1978), and we consider them in our discussion here, along with the more traditional life table statistics that they influence.


Life History Life History Trait Clutch Size Wing Length Additive Genetic Variance 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hugh Dingle
  • William S. Blau
  • Carl Kice Brown
  • Joseph P. Hegmann
    • 1
  1. 1.Program in Evolutionary Ecology and Behavior Department of ZoologyUniversity of IowaIowa CityUSA

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