Genetics, Ecology, and the Evolution of Life Histories
In a seminal discussion MacArthur and Wilson (1967) provided a logical framework for the development of a theory of life history evolution. They reasoned that colonizing species at low densities in pioneer habitats should evolve a suite of life table characters emphasizing early and rapid production of offspring. In contrast, species in stable communities with density dependence were expected to display traits associated with strong competitive abilities and behavioral characteristics promoting the survival of individual offspring. Their exposition clearly emphasized the importance of gene influences on life history variation, because an understanding of genetic structure is essential to understanding evolutionary processes. In their words, “The degree of deflection and rebound of r depends of course on the heritability of the life-table parameters. Measurements of this heritability, and estimates of its influence on evolution under various colonizing conditions, remain to be made.” Until recently, additional analyses of life history evolution have been largely theoretical and usually without the explicit inclusion of appropriate genetic variation (summarized by Stearns 1976).
KeywordsLife History Life History Variation Life History Evolution Explicit Inclusion Individual Offspring
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