Advertisement

Animal Models for Tumors of the Ovary and Uterus

  • June Marchant

Abstract

The ultimate objective of animal studies of cancer is to achieve a better understanding of factors responsible for human disease in the hope that this may be ultimately eliminated or controlled. In order to establish the basic biologic mechanisms governing the development of human cancer, systematic controlled experiments are required. For practical and ethical reasons, these are impossible to carry out with humans so animal models have to be sought.

Keywords

Granulosa Cell Ovarian Tumor Uterine Cervix Uterine Horn Tumor Induction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Allen, E., and Gardner, W. U. Cancer of the cervix of the uterus in hybrid mice following long-continued administration of estrogen. Cancer Res. 1: 359, 1941.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alvizouri, M., and de Pita, V. R. Experimental carcinoma of the cervix. Hormonal influences. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 89: 940, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baba, N., and von Haam, E. Experimental carcinoma of the endometrium. Adenocarcinoma in rabbits and squamous cell carcinoma in rats and mice. Prog. Exp. Tumor Res. 9: 192, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baba, N., and von Haam, E. Squamous cell carcinoma of the rat endometrium produced by insertion of strings coated with paraffin and polymer. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 47: 675, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bacon, R. R. Tumors of the epididymis and of the uterus in hamsters treated with diethylstilbestrol and testosterone propionate. Cancer Res. 12: 246, 1952.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bali, T., and Furth, J. Morphological and biological characteristics of X-ray induced transplantable ovarian tumors. Cancer Res. 9: 449, 1949.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Barbieri, G., Olivi, M., and Sacco, O. Lesioni microscopiche nel’ uteri di topi (BALB/Cf, C3H/CB/Se substrain) trattati con benzoato di estradiolo. Lav. Ist. Anat. Istol. Patol. Perugia 18: 165, 1958.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Biancifiori, C., Bonser, G. M., and Caschera, F. Ovarian and mammary tumours in intact C3Hb virgin mice following a limited dose of four carcinogenic chemicals. Br. J. Cancer 15: 270, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bielschowsky, F., and Hall, W. H. Carcinogenesis in parabiotic rats. Tumours of the ovary induced by acetylaminofluorene in intact females joined to gonadectomised littermates and the reaction of their pituitaries to endogenous oestrogens. Br. J. Cancer 5: 331, 1951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bielschowsy, M., and D’Ath, E. F. Spontaneous granulosa cell tumours of mice of strain NZC-Bi, NZO-Bi, NZY-Bi and NZB-Bi. Pathology 5: 303, 1973.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Biskind, G. R., Bernstein, D. E., and Gospe, S. M. The effect of exogenous gonadotrophins on the development of experimental ovarian tumors in rats. Cancer Res. 13: 216, 1953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Biskind, G. R., and Biskind, M. S. Experimental ovarian tumors in rats. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 19: 501, 1949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Biskind, G. R., Kordan, B., and Biskind, M. S. Ovary transplanted to spleen in rats: The effect of unilateral castration, pregnancy and subsequent castration. Cancer Res. 10: 309, 1950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bonser, G. M., and Jull, J. W. Tumours of the Ovary. Personal communication, 1974.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bonser, G. M., and Robson, J. M. The induction of tumours following the direct implantation of 20-methylcholanthrene in the uterus of mice. Br. J. Cancer 4: 196, 1950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Boyland, E., Charles, R. T., and Gowing, N. F. C. The induction of tumours in mice by intravaginal application of chemical compounds. Br. J. Cancer 15: 252, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bruzzone, S., and Lipschutz, A. Endometrial adenocarcinoma and extragenital tumours in guinea-pigs with ‘ovarian fragmentation’. Br. J. Cancer 8: 613, 1954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bullock, F. D., and Curtis, M. R. Spontaneous tumors of the rat. J. Cancer Res. 14: 1, 1930.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Carter, R. L. Pathology of ovarian neoplasms in rats and mice. Eur. J. Cancer 3: 537, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cherry, C. P., and Glucksman, A. The effect of endocrine changes, of irradiation and of additional treatment of the skin on the induction of tumours in the female genital tract of rats by chemical carcinogens. Br. J. Cancer 14: 489, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Christov, K., and Raichev, R. Proliferative and neoplastic changes in the ovaries of hamsters treated with 131-iodine and methylthiouracil. Neoplasma 20: 511, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Corfman, P. A., and Richart, R. M. Induction in rats of uterine epidermoid carcinomas by plastic and stainless steel intrauterine devices. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 98: 987, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cotchin, E. Spontaneous uterine cancer in animals. Br. J. Cancer 18: 209, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Damjanov, I., and Solter, D. Host related factors determine outgrowth of terato-carcinomas from mouse egg-cylinders. Z. Krebsforsch. 81: 63, 1974.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Davies, J., and Kusama, H. Developmental aspects of the human cervix. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 97: 534, 1962.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dawson, P. J., Brooks, R. E., and Fieldsteel, A. H. Unusual occurrence of endometrial sarcomas in hybrid mice. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 52: 207, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Deringer, M. K. Occurrence of tumors, particularly mammary tumors, in agent-free strain C3HeB mice. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 22: 995, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Deringer, M. K., Lorenz, E., and Uphoff, D. E. Fertility and tumor development in (C57L × A)F1 hybrid mice receiving X radiation to ovaries only, to whole body, and to whole body with ovaries shielded. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 15: 931, 1954.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dickie, M. M. The use of F1 hybrid and backcross generations to reveal new and/or uncommon tumour types. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 15: 791, 1954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dunn, T. B. The importance of differences in morphology in inbred strains. J. Natl. Cancer. Inst. 15: 573, 1954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dunn, T. B. Cancer of the uterine cervix in mice fed a liquid diet containing anti-fertility drug. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 43: 671, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dunn, T. B., and Green, A. W. Cysts of the epididymis, cancer of the cervix, granular cell myoblastoma, and other lesions after estrogen injection in newborn mice. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 31: 425, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fawcett, D. W. Bilateral ovarian teratomas in a mouse. Cancer Res. 10: 705, 1950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Fekete, E., and Ferrigno, M. A. Studies on a transplantable teratoma of the mouse. Cancer Res. 12: 438, 1952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Fels, E. Effet de la ligature tubaire sur la fonction ovarienne chez le rat. C. R. Soc. Biol. 148: 1666, 1954.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fels, E. Aspectos morfológicos y funcionales de los tumores experimentales del ovario. Rev. Arg. Endocrinol. Metab. 2: 1, 1956.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fishman, M., Shear, M. J., Friedman, H. F., and Stewart, H. L. Studies in carcinogenesis. XVII. Local effect of repeated application of 3,4-Benzpyrene and of human smegma to the vagina and cervix of mice. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 2: 361, 1941-2.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Flux, J. E. C. Incidence of ovarian tumors in hares in New Zealand. J. Wildlife Mgmnt. 29: 622, 1965.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Forsber, J. G. Estrogen, vaginal cancer and vaginal development. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 113: 83, 1972.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Forsberg, J. C., and Breitstein, L. S. Carcinogenesis with 3-methylcholanthrene in uterine cervix of mice treated neonatally with estrogen. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 49: 155, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Furth, J., and Boon, M. C. Induction of ovarian tumors in mice by X-rays. Cancer Res. 7: 241, 1947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Furth, J., and Furth, O. B. Neoplastic diseases produced in mice by general irradiation with X-rays. Am. J. Cancer 28: 54, 1936.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Furth, J., and Sobel, H. Neoplastic transformations of granulosa cells in grafts of normal ovaries into spleens of gonadectomised mice. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 8: 7, 1947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Furth, J., and Sobel, H. Transplantable luteoma in mice and associated secondary changes. Cancer Res. 7: 246, 1947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gardner, W. U. Studies on steroid hormones in experimental carcinogenesis. Rec. Prog. Horm. Res. 1: 217, 1947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gardner, W. U. Further studies on experimental ovarian tumorigenesis. Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 2: 300, 1958.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gardner, W. U. Carcinoma of the uterine cervix and upper vagina: Induction under experimental conditions in mice. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 75: 543, 1959.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gardner, W. U. Tumorigenesis in transplanted irradiated and nonirradiated ovaries. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 26: 829, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gardner, W. U., Allan, E., and Strong, L. C. Atypical uterine and vaginal changes in mice receiving large doses of estrogenic hormone. Anat. Rec. 64: 17, Suppl. 3 (Abstract), 1936.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gardner, W. U., and Ferrigno, M. Unusual neoplastic lesions of the uterine horns of estrogen-treated mice. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 17: 601, 1956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gardner, W. U., and Pan, S. C. Malignant tumors of the uterus and vagina in untreated mice of the PM stock. Cancer Res. 8: 241, 1948.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Giovanella, B.C., and Stehlin, J. S. Influence of the host’s sex on the growth of human tumors heterotransplanted in “nude” thymusless mice. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res, 15, Abstract 92, 1974.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Glucksman, A. Some effects of steroid hormones on carcinogenesis in rats: Effects of oestrogens on the induction of tumours in the cervico-vaginal tract and in the salivary glands, in Williams, D. C., and Briggs, M. C., eds.: Some Implications of Steroid Hormones in Cancer London, Heinemann Medical Books, 1971, pp. 70–78.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Glucksman, A., and Cherry, C. P. The role of the ovary in the induction of tumours by the local application of 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene to the genital tract of rats. Br. J. Cancer 12: 32, 1958.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Glucksman, A., and Cherry, C. P. The effect of castration and of additional hormonal treatments on the induction of cervical and vulval tumours in mice. Br. J. Cancer 16: 634, 1962.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Glucksman, A., and Cherry, C. P. The effect of increased numbers of carcinogenic treatments on the induction of cervicovaginal and vulval tumours in intact and castrate rats. Br. J. Cancer 24: 333, 1970.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gorski, R. A., and Wagner, J. W. Gonadal activity and sexual differentiation of the hypothalamus. Endocrinology 76: 226, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Graham, C. E. Cyclic changes in the squamo-columnar junction of the mouse cervix uteri. Anat. Rec. 155: 251, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Graham, C. E. Relationship of carcinogenesis and epidermization during 20-methylcholanthrene treatment of the mouse uterine cervix. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 103: 1084, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Greene, H. S. N. Adenocarcinoma of the uterine fundus in the rabbit. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 75: 535, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Greenwood, A. W. Controlled environments and cancer incidence in the domestic fowl, in Shives, A. A., ed.: Racial and Geographical Factors in Tumour Incidence. Medical Monograph 2. Edinburgh, University Press, 1967, pp. 241–249.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Guthrie, M. J. Tumorigenesis in intrasplenic ovaries in mice. Cancer, N.Y. 10: 190, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hafez, E. S. E. The comparative anatomy of the mammalian cervix in Blandau, R. J., and Moghissi, K., eds.: The Biology of the Cervix Chicago, Chicago University Press, 1973, Ch. 3.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hale, H. B., and Weichert, C. K. Ovarian tumors in adult rats following prepuberal administration of estrogens. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 55: 201, 1944.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hamilton, C. E. The cervix uteri of the rat. Anat. Rec. 97: 47, 1947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Herbst, A. L., Ulfelder, H., and Poskanzer, D. C. Adenocarcinoma of the vagina—association of maternal stilboestrol therapy with the tumor appearance in young women. N. Engl. J. Med. 284: 878, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hertz, R. Biological aspects of gestational neoplasms derived from trophoblast. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 172: 279, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hilfrich, J. A new model for inducing malignant ovarian tumours in rats. Br. J. Cancer 28: 46, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hiraki, S. Carcinogenic effect of N,N′-dimethylnitrosourea on Syrian hamsters. Gann 62: 321, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Homburger, F. Chemical carcinogenesis in Syrian hamsters. Prog. Exp. Tumor Res. 16: 152, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Hori, C. G., Warren, S., Patterson, W. B., and Chute, R. N. Gamma ray induction of malignant tumors in rats. Am. J. Pathol. 65: 279, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Horning, E. S. Carcinogenic action of androgens. Br. J. Cancer 64: 414, 1958.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Howell, J. S., Marchant, J., and Orr, J. W. The induction of ovarian tumors in mice with 9: 10-dimethyl-1;2-benzanthracene. Br. J. Cancer 8: 635, 1954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Huggins, C. B., and Sugiyama, T. Production and prevention of two distinctive kinds of destruction of the adrenal cortex. Nature (London) 206: 1310, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hummel, K. P. Induced ovarian tumors. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 15: 711, 1954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Iglesias, R. Newer concepts in pathogenesis. Secondary endocrine and mammary malignancies as main signs of hormonal syndromes produced by endocrine tumors. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 230: 500, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Iglesias, R., Mardones, E., and Lipschutz, A. Evolution of luteoma in intrasplenic ovarian grafts in the guinea-pig. Br. J. Cancer 7: 214, 1953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Iijima, H., Nasu, K., and Taki, I. Comparative study of carcinogenesis in squamous columnar epithelium of mouse uterus by string method of producing cervical carcinoma. Am. J. Ohstet. Gynecol. 89: 946, 1964.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Jabara, A. G. Induction of canine ovarian tumours by diethylstilboestrol and progesterone. Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 40: 139, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Joneja, M. J., and Coulson, D. B. Histopathology and cytogenetics of tumors induced by the application of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in mouse cervix. Eur. J. Cancer 9: 367, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Jones, D. C., and Witschi, E. Endocrinology of ovarian tumor formation in parabiotic rats. Cancer Res. 21: 783, 1961.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Jones, E. C., and Krohn, P. L. Influence of the anterior pituitary on the ageing process in the ovary. Nature (London) 183: 1155, 1959.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Jones, E. C., and Krohn, P. L. The relationships between age, numbers of oocytes and fertility in virgin and multiparous mice. J. Endocrinol. 21: 469, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Jull, J. W. Hormones as promoting agents in mammary carcinogenesis. Acta Un. Int. Cancer (Louvain) 12: 653, 1956.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Jull, J. W. Mechanism of induction of ovarian tumors in the mouse by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. VI Effect of normal ovarian tissue on tumor development. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 42: 967, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Jull, J. W. Ovarian tumorigenesis. Methods Cancer Res. 7: 131, 1973.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Jull, J. W., Hawryluk, A., and Russell, A. Mechanism of induction of ovarian tumors in the mouse by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. III Tumor induction in organ culture. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 40: 687, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Jull, J. W., and Jellink, P. H. Mechanism of induction of ovarian tumors in the mouse by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. IV Uptake and retention of C14—DMBA by mouse and rat tissues. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 40: 707, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Jull, J. W., and Russell, A. Mechanism of induction of ovarian tumors in the mouse by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. VII Relative activities of parent hydrocarbon and some of its metabolites. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 44: 841, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Jurow, H. N. Cyclic variations in the cervix of the guinea-pig. Am. J. Ohstet. Gynecol. 45: 762, 1943.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Kaminetzky, H. A. Methylcholanthrene-induced cervical dysplasia and the sex steroids. Ohstet. Gynecol. 27: 489, 1966.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Kimura, T., and Nandi, S. Nature of induced persistent vaginal cornification in mice. IV Changes in the vaginal epithelium of old mice treated neonatally with estradiol or testosterone. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 39: 75, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Kirkman, H. Hormone-related tumors in Syrian hamsters. Prog. Exp. Tumor Res. 16: 201, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Kirkman, H., and Algard, F. T. Characteristics of an androgen/estrogen induced uterine smooth muscle tumor of the Syrian hamster. Cancer Res. 30: 794, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Koprowska, I., Bogacz, J., Pentikas, C., and Stypulkowski, W. Induced cervical carcinoma of the mouse. A quantitative cytological method for evaluation of the neoplastic process. Cancer Res. 18: 1186, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Krarup, T. 9: 10-dimethyl-1:2-benzanthracene induced ovarian tumours in mice. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 70: 241, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Krarup, T. Oocyte destruction and ovarian tumorigenesis after direct application of a chemical carcinogen (9:10-dimethyl-1:2-benzanthracene) to the mouse ovary. Intl. J. Cancer 4: 61, 1969.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Krarup, T., and Loft, H. Presence of DMBA-3H in the mouse ovary and its relation to ovarian tumour induction. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. A 79: 139, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kullander, S. On tumor formation in gonadal and hypophyseal transplants into the anterior eye chambers of gonadectomised rats. Cancer Res. 20: 1079, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Kushima, K., Noda, K., and Makita, M. Experimental production of chorionic tumor in rabbits. Tohuko J. Med. 91: 209, 1967.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kuwahara, I. Experimental induction of ovarian tumors in mice treated with single administration of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, and its pathological observation. Gann 58: 253, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Lee, S., Condon, J. K., Chandler, J. G., Koopmans, H., Ehara, Y., Yen, S. S., and Orloff, M. J. The effect of Eck fistula upon intrasplenic ovarian neoplasm formation. Surg. Forum 23: 110, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Li, M. H., and Gardner, W. U. Further studies on the pathogenesis of ovarian tumors in mice. Cancer Res. 9: 35, 1949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Lick, L., Kirschbaum, A., and Mixer, H. Mechanism of induction of ovarian tumors by X-rays. Cancer Res. 9: 532, 1949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Lipschutz, A. Steroid Homeostasis. Hypophysis and Tumorigenesis Cambridge, Heffer and Sons, 1957.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Lipschutz, A., Iglesias, R., Panasevich, V. I., and Salinas, S. Granulosa-cell tumours induced in mice by progesterone. Br. J. Cancer 21: 144, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Lipschutz, A., Iglesias, R., Panasevich, V. I., and Salinas, S. Pathological changes induced in the uterus of mice with the prolonged administration of progesterone and 19-nor-contraceptives. Br. J. Cancer 21: 160, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Lipschutz, A., Iglesias, R., Panasevich, V. I., and Socorro, S. Ovarian tumours and other ovarian changes induced in mice by two 19-nor-contraceptives. Br. J. Cancer 21: 153, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Lipschutz, A., Iglesias, R., Salinas, S., and Panasevich, V. I. Experimental conditions under which contraceptive steroids may become toxic. Nature (London) 212: 686, 1966.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Lipschutz, A., and Vargas, L. Structure and origin of uterine and extragenital fibroids induced experimentally in the guinea-pig by prolonged administration of estrogens. Cancer Res. 1: 236, 1941.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Loeb, L., Burns, E. L., Suntzeff, V., and Moskop, M. Carcinoma-like proliferations in vagina, cervix and uterus of mouse treated with estrogens. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 35: 320, 1936.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    London, W. T., Nahmias, A. J., Naib, Z. M., Fucillo, D. A., Ellenberg, J. H., and Sever, J. L. A nonhuman primate model for the study of the cervical oncogenic potential of Herpes simplex virus type 2. Cancer Res. 34: 1118, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Lorenz, E. Some biologic effects of long continued radiation. Am. J. Roentgenol Radium Ther. Nucl. Med. 63: 176, 1950.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Manocha, S. L., and Graham, C. E. Histochemistry of mouse cervical epithelium during chemical carcinogenesis. Histochem. J. 2: 357, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Marchant, J. Influence of the strain of ovarian grafts on the induction of breast and ovarian tumours in F1 (C57B1 × IF) hybrid mice by 9:10-dimethyl-1:2-benzanthracene. Br. J. Cancer 13: 306, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Marchant, J. Changes in the ovaries of mice treated with dimethylbenzanthracene and observations on the subsequent development of tumours in ovaries and breasts. Br. J. Cancer 13: 652, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Marchant, J. The development of ovarian tumours in ovaries grafted from mice pretreated with dimethylbenzanthracene. Inhibition by the presence of normal ovarian tissue. Br. J. Cancer 14: 514, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Marchant, J. The effect of hypophysectomy on the development of ovarian tumours in mice treated with dimethylbenzanthracene. Br. J. Cancer 15: 821, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Marchant, J. Personal observation, 1960.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Marchant, J., Orr, J. W., and Woodhouse, D. L. Induction of ovarian tumors with 9:10-dimethyl-1:2-benzanthracene. Nature (London) 173: 307, 1954.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Mardones, E., Iglesias, R., and Lipschutz, A. Granulosa cell tumours in intrasplenic ovarian grafts, with intrahepatic metastases, in guinea-pigs at five years after grafting. Br. J. Cancer 9: 409, 1955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    McClure, H. M., and Graham, C. E. Malignant uterine mesotheliomas in squirrel monkeys following diethylstilboestrol administration. Lab. Anim. Sci. 23: 493, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Meier, H., Myers, D. D., Fox, R. R., and Laird, C. W. Occurrence, pathological features, and propagation of gonadal teratomas in inbred mice and rabbits. Cancer Res. 30: 30, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Meisels, A. Effect of sex hormones on the carcinogenic action of dimethylbenzanthracene on the uterus of intact and castrated mice. Cancer Res. 26: 757, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Meissner, W. A., Sommers, S. C., and Sherman, G. Endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial carcinoma, and endometriosis produced experimentally by estrogen. Cancer, N.Y. 10: 500, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Miller, O. J., and Gardner, W. U. The role of thyroid function and food intake in experimental ovarian tumorigenesis in mice. Cancer Res. 14: 220, 1954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Mody, J. K. The action of four carcinogenic hydrocarbons on the ovaries of IF mice and the histogenesis of induced tumours. Br. J. Cancer 14: 256, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Moon, H. D., Simpson, M. E., Li, C. H., and Evans, H. M. Neoplasms in rats and mice treated with pituitary growth hormone. III Reproductive organs. Cancer Res. 10: 549, 1950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Mossman, H. W. The embryology of the cervix. In Blandau, R. J., and Moghissi, K. eds.: The Biology of the Cervix Chicago, Chicago University Press, 1973, Ch. 2.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Mossman, H. W., and Duke, K. L. Comparative Morphology of the Mammalian Ovary Madison University of Wisconsin Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Mühlbock, O. Hormonale ovariumtumoren na Röntgenbestraling. Ned. Tijdsch. v. Geneesk, 95: 915, 1951.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Mühlbock, O. Ovarian tumours in mice in parabiotic union. Acta Endocrinol Copenhagen. 12: 105, 1953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Mühlbock, O. On the genesis of ovarian tumours. Experiments with mice in parabiotic union. Acta Un. Int. Cancr (Louvain) 10: 141, 1954.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Mühlbock, O., van Nie, R., and Bosch, L. The production of oestrogenic hormones by granulosa cell tumours in mice, in Hormone Production in Endocrine Tumours, Ciba Found. Colloq. Endocrinol., 1958, Vol. 12, p. 78.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Muñoz, N. Effect of Herpesvirus Type 2 and hormonal imbalance on the uterine cervix of the mouse. Cancer Res. 33: 1504, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Murphy, E. D. Carcinogenesis of the uterine cervix in mice: Effect of diethylstilbestrol after limited application of 3-methylcholanthrene. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 27: 611, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Murphy, E. D. Characteristic tumors, in Green, E. L., ed: Jackson Laboratory. Biology of the Laboratory Mouse, 2nd ed. New York, McGraw Hill, 1966, Ch. 27.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Murphy, E. D. Carcinogenesis of the uterine cervix in mice: Effect of castration after limited application of 3-methylcholanthrene. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 41: 1111, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Murphy, E. D. Hyperplastic and early neoplastic changes in the ovaries of mice after genic deletion of germ cells. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 48: 1283, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Murphy, E. D., and Beamer, W. G. Plasma gonadotropin levels during early stages of ovarian tumorigenesis in mice of the W x/W v genotype. Cancer Res. 33: 721, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Nairn, R. C., Wallace, A. C., and Guli, E. P. Intestinal antigenicity of ovarian mucinous cystadenomas. Br. J. Cancer 25: 276, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Nelson, L. W., Kelly, W. A., and Weikel, J. H. Mesovarial leiomyomas in rats in a chronic toxicity study of mesuprine hydrochloride. Toxicol Appl. Pharmacol. 23: 731, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Nelson, W. O. Atypical uterine growths produced by prolonged administration of estrogenic hormones. Endocrinology 24: 50, 1939.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Nishizuka, Y., and Sakakura, T. Ovarian dysgenesis induced by neonatal thymectomy in the mouse. Endocrinology 89: 886, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Nishizuka, Y., and Sakakura, T. Effect of combined removal of thymus and pituitary on post-natal ovarian follicular development in the mouse. Endocrinology 89: 902, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Nishizuka, Y., Tanaka, Y., Sakakura, T., and Kojma, A. Frequent development of ovarian tumors from dysgenetic ovaries of neonatally thymectomised mice. Gann 63: 139, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Nomura, T. Carcinogenesis by urethane via mother’s milk and its enhancement of transplacental carcinogenesis in mice. Cancer Res. 33: 1677, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Nomura, T., Okamoto, E., and Manabe, H. Ovarian teratoma found in an offspring of mothers (ICR-JCL mice) treated with urethane. Med. J. Osaka Univ. 23: 121, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Oakberg, E. F. Effect of 25R of X-rays at 10 days of age on oocyte numbers and fertility of female mice, in Lindop, D. J., and Sacher, G. A., eds.: Radiation and Ageing. London, Taylor and Francis, 1966, pp. 293–306.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Pan, S. C., and Gardner, W. U. Induction of malignant tumors by methylcholanthrene in transplanted uterine cornua and cervixes of mice. Cancer Res. 8: 613, 1948.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Pantelouris, E. M. Athymic development in the mouse. Differentiation 1: 437, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Peckham, B. M., and Greene, R. R. Experimentally produced granulosa-cell tumors in rabbits. Cancer Res. 12: 654, 1952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Perry, I. H., and Ginzton, L. L. The development of tumors in female mice treated with 1;2;5;6-dibenzanthracene and theelin. Am. J. Cancer 29: 680, 1937.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Peters, H. Effects of radiation in early life on the morphology and reproductive function of the mouse ovary. Adv. Reprod. Physiol. 4: 149, 1969.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Pfeiffer, C. A. Sexual differences of the hypophysis and their determination by the gonads. Am. J. Anat. 58: 195, 1936.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Pfeiffer, C. A. Development of leiomyomas in female rats with an endocrine imbalance. Cancer Res. 9: 277, 1949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Pfeiffer, C. A. Adenocarcinoma in the uterus of an endocrine imbalance female rat. Cancer Res. 9: 347, 1949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Pierson, H. Experimental production of uterine enlargement with cancer through ovarian hormone. Ztschr. Krebsforsch. 41: 103, 1934.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Reagen, J. W., Wentz, B. W., and Hachico, N. Induced cancer of the mouse. Arch. Pathol. 6: 451, 1955.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Reboud, S., and Pageant, G. Co-carcinogenic effect of progesterone on 20-methylcholanthrene-induced cervical carcinoma in mice. Nature (London) 241: 398, 1973.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Reuber, M. D. Endometrial sarcomas of the uterus and carcinosarcoma of the submaxillary salivary gland in castrated A × C strain female rats receiving N,N′-fluorenyldiacetamide and norethandrolone. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 25: 1141, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Roberts, D. C. Transplanted tumours of the Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) used in research 1964–1970. Prog. Exp. Tumor. Res. 16: 558, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Rubio, C. A., and Lagelöf, B. Studies on the histogenesis of experimentally induced cervical carcinoma. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. A 82: 153, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Rubio, C. A., and Lagelöf, B. Autoradiographic studies of experimentally induced atypias in the cervical epithelium of mice. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. A 82: 475, 1974.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Russell, E. S., and Fekete, E. Analysis of W-series pleiotropism in the mouse: Effect of WvWv substitution on definitive germ cells and on ovarian tumorigenesis. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 21: 365, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Scarpelli, D. G., and von Haam, E. Experimental carcinoma of the uterine cervix in the mouse. Am. J. Pathol. 33: 1059, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Sekiya, S., Takamizawa, H., Wang, F., Takane, T., and Kuwata, T. In vivo and in vitro studies on uterine adenocarcinoma of the rat induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 113: 691, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Sekiya, S., Yam, A., and Takamizawa, H. Enhancement of tumor growth and metastases by medroxyprogesterone acetate in transplanted uterine adenocarcinoma cells of the rat. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 52: 297, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Sever, J. L. Herpes virus and cervical cancer studies in experimental animals. Cancer Res. 33: 1509, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Shen, C. N. Experimental induction of placental tumor in the guinea pig. Nagoya Med. J. 17: 33, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Shintani, S., Glass, L. E., and Page, E. W. Studies of induced malignant tumors of placental and uterine origin in the rat. II Induced tumors and pathogenesis. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 95: 550, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Shisa, H., and Nishizuka, Y. Unilateral development of ovarian tumour in thymectomized Swiss mice following a single injection of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene at neonatal stage. Br. J. Cancer 22: 70, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Singh, K. B. Induction of polycystic ovarian disease in rats by continuous light. I. The reproductive cycle, organ weights and histology of the ovaries. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 103: 1078, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Slye, M., Holmes, M. F., and Wells, H. G. Primary spontaneous tumors of the ovary in mice. J. Cancer Res. 5: 205, 1920.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Sobis, H., and Vandeputte, M. Development of teratomas from displaced visceral yolk sac. Intl. J. Cancer 13: 444, 1974.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Sommers, S. C., and Meissner. W. A. Host relationship in experimental endometrial carcinoma. Cancer, N.Y. 10: 510, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Staats, J. Standardised nomenclature for inbred strains of mice. Third listing. Cancer Res. 24: 147, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Stein-Werblowsky, R. Induction of cancer of the cervix in relation to the oestrus cycle. Br. J. Cancer 14: 300, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Stevens, L. C. Experimental production of testicular teratomas in mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 52: 654, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Stevens, L. C., and Varnum, D. S. The development of teratomas from parthenogenetically activated ovarian mouse eggs. Dev. Biol. 37: 369, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Strong, L. C., Gardner, W. U., and Hill, R. T. Production of estrogenic hormone by a transplantable ovarian carcinoma. Endocrinology 21: 268, 1937.Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Suntzeff, V., Burns, E. L., Moskop, M., and Loeb, L. On proliferative changes taking place in epithelium of vagina and cervix of mice with advancing age and under influence of experimentally administered estrogenic hormones. Am. J. Cancer 32: 256, 1938.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Symeonides, A. Tumors induced by 2-acetylaminofluorene in virgin and breeding females of five strains of rats and in their offspring. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 15: 539, 1954.Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Symeonides, A., and Mori-Chavez, P. A transplantable ovarian papillary adenocarcinoma of the rat with ascites implants in the ovary. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 13: 409, 1952.Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Takamizawa, H., and Wong, K. Effect of anticancer drugs on uterine carcinogenesis. Obstet. Gynecol. 41: 701, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Takasugi, N. Carcinogenesis by vaginal transplants from ovariectomized, neonatally-estrogenized mice into ovariectomized normal host. Gann 63: 73, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Taki, I., and Iijima, H. A new method of producing endometrial cancer in mice. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 87: 926, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Taki, I., Iijima, H., Doi, T., Uetsuki, Y., and Masahiko, M. Histochemistry of hydrolytic and oxydative enzymes in the human and experimentally induced adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 94: 86, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Thiery, M. Ovarian teratoma in the mouse. Br. J. Cancer 17: 231, 1936.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Thiery, M., De Groodt, M., De Rom, F., Sebryns, M., and Lagasse, A. Viruslike particles in chemically-induced carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Nature (London) 183: 694, 1959.Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Thiery, M., and Willighagen, R. G. J. Enzyme histochemistry of induced and transplanted squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Br. J. Cancer 18: 582, 1964.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Uematsu, K., and Huggins, C. B. Induction of leukaemia and ovarian tumors in mice by pulse-doses of aromatic hydrocarbons. Mol Pharmacol 4: 427, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Vandeputte, M., Sobis, H., Billiau, A., van de Maele, B., and Leyten R. In utero tumor induction by murine sarcoma virus (Maloney) in the rat. I. Biological characteristics. Intl. J. Cancer 11: 536, 1973.Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    van Nie, R., Benedetti, E. L., and Mühlbock, O. A carcinogenic action of testosterone, provoking uterine tumours in mice. Nature (London) 192: 1303, 1961.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    van Nie, R., Smit, G. M. J., and Mühlbock, O. The induction of uterine tumours in mice treated with testosterone. Acta Un. Int. Cancer 18: 194, 1962.Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Vellios, F., and Griffin, J. The pathogenesis of dimethyl-benzanthracene-induced carcinoma of the cervix in rats. Cancer Res. 17: 364, 1955.Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Vesselinovich, S. D., Mihailovich, N., Rao, K. V., and Itze, L. Perinatal carcinogenesis by urethane. Cancer Res. 31: 2143, 1971.Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Vink, H. H. Ovarian teratomas in guinea pigs: A report of ten cases. J. Pathol 102: 180, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    von Haam, E., and Scarpielli, D. G. Experimental carcinoma of the cervix: A comparative cytologic and histologic study. Cancer Res. 15: 449, 1955.Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Willis, R. A. Ovarian teratomas in guinea pigs. J. Pathol Bacteriol. 84: 237, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Yong, H. Y., and Campbell, J. S. Evolution of dysplasia of the uterine cervix and vagina induced by low dosages of carcinogen in mice. Obstet. Gynecol. 26: 91, 1965.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • June Marchant

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations