I have said that no plan is ever carried out in its original form. I think this is principally due to what von Clausewitz calls “friction.” Suppose, as was the case at Salerno, troops are ordered to capture a piece of high ground overlooking the beach before daylight. Why is it that this order is not carried out? It is principally because of the innumerable unforeseen and unforeseeable difficulties which accumulate and produce a friction that slows down the whole action. Troops land on the wrong beach, get lost from each other in the dark, run into seven and eight lines of barbed wire, become angry, depressed, doubtful or afraid and inevitably come far short of their mark.
KeywordsSecret Service Wrong Road American Officer Actual Fight Rare Quality
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