Cuprous Chloride

  • J. T. Milek
  • M. Neuberger


About 1963, cuprous chloride (CuCl) was found to have a number of advantageous electrooptic characteristics as compared to the KDP family of electrooptic materials: it has a low optical loss over a wide spectral range from the visible through the infrared, a low refractive index and a low dielectric constant as well as a low loss tangent at microwave frequencies. This means that a wider range of infrared frequencies may be modulated (CuCl transmits to 20 microns), greater angular aperture, lower modulating power, and a greater ease of use in both cavity-type and travelling-wave type modulators. Cuprous chloride modulators, requiring only modest input power, have been demonstrated experimentally and operated continuously with band-widths of tens of MHz at microwave frequencies. The major problem hindering its full development and use has been the (difficulty in producing) good strain-free crystals, a problem arising from the phase transformation.


Silver Iodide Electrooptic Property Cuprous Chloride Zincblende Phase Lower Modulate Power 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alonas, P. et al. Dielectric Properties of CuCl at 300°K in the 3–30 micron Region. Applied Optics, v. 8, no. 12, Dec. 1969. p. 2557–2559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Air Force Cambridge Res. Labs., Bedford, Mass. Solid State Sci. Lab. A Study of Some Factors which Influence the Growth of Cuprous Chloride in Silica Gel, by Armington, A.F. et al. July 1967. 17 p. AD 659 135.Google Scholar
  3. Belyaev, L.M. et al. Dielectric Constant of Crystals Having an Electro-Optical Effect. Soviet Phys.-Solid State, v. 6, no. 8, Feb. 1965. p. 2007–2008.Google Scholar
  4. Belyaev, L.M. et al. Electro-Optical Properties of Copper Chloride and Bromide Crystals. Soviet Phys.-Solid State, v. 6, no. 12, June 1965. p. 2988.Google Scholar
  5. Blattner, D.J. et al. A Research Program on the Utilization of Coherent Light. Rca Interim Rept., no. 6, Jan. 20, 1963. 28 p. AD 296 145.Google Scholar
  6. Chemla, D. et al. Nonlinear Properties of Cuprous Halides. Ieee J. Quantum Electronics, v. QE-7, no. 3, Mar. 1971. p. 126–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Donnay, J.D.H. Ed. Crystal Data, Determinative Tables. 2nd Ed., American Crys-tallographic Assn., Aca Monograph No. 5, 1963.Google Scholar
  8. Texas Instruments, Inc. Solid State Techniques for Modulation and Demodulation of Optical Waves, by: Eden, D.D. Final Tech. Rept. Ecom-03250-F. Sept. 1966. 283 p. AD 489 390.Google Scholar
  9. Feldman, A. and D. Horowitz. Refractive Index of Cuprous Chloride. Optical Soc. of America, J., v. 59, no. 11, Nov. 1969. p. 1406–1408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gentile, A.L. Electric Breakdown Mechanism in Cuprous Chloride Single Crystals. Applied Phys. Letters, v. 9, Sept. 1966. p. 237–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Goto, T. and M. Ueta. Single Crystals of Cuprous Halides and Their Exciton Emissions. Phys. Soc. of Japan, J., v. 22, no. 4, Apr. 1967. p. 1123–1124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Goto, T. et al. Exciton Luminescence of CuCl, CuBr and Cul Single Crystals. Phys. Soc. of Japan, J., v. 24, no. 2, Feb. 1968. p. 314–327.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hadni, A. et al. Far-Infrared-Active Phonon Processes in CuCl. J. Chem. Phys., v. 49, no. 1, July 1968. p. 471–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hsueh, Y.W. and R.W. Christy. Thermoelectric Power of CuCl Containing CdCl2. Dartmouth College, Dept. of Physics, Tech. Report No. 4, July 1963.Google Scholar
  15. Jerphagnon, J. et al. Second Harmonic Generation in Cuprous Chloride. Acad. Des Sciences, Comptes Rendus, B. v. 265, no. 19, Nov. 1967. p. 1032–1033. (In Fr.)Google Scholar
  16. Kaifu, Y. et al. Some Optical Properties of CuCl Single Crystals. Phys. Soc. of Japan, J., v. 22, no. 2, Feb. 1967. p. 517–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kaifu, Y. and T. Komatsu. Refractive Index of CuCl. Phys. Soc. of Japan, J., v. 25, no. 2, Aug. 1968. p. 644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kaminow, I.P. and E.H. Turner. Electrooptic Light Modulators. Ieee Proc, v. 54, Oct. 1966. p. 1374–1390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lawn, B.R. The Thermal Expansion of Silver Iodide and the Cuprous Halides. Acta Cryst., v. 17, no.11, Nov. 1964, p. 1341–1347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mccarthy, D.E. The Reflection and Transmission of Infrared Materials: Pt. III. Spectra from 2 to 50 microns, Applied Optics, v. 4, no. 3, Mar. 1965. p. 317–320.Google Scholar
  21. Mogilevskii, B.M. and O.U. Usmanov. Thermoelectric Properties of Silver and Copper Halides in Solid and Liquid Phases. Soviet Electrochem., v. 3, no. 9, Sept. 1967, p. 1002-1004.Google Scholar
  22. Schwab, C. and P. Robinc. Photoelastic Properties of Cuprous Halides. Optics Communications, v. 4, no. 4, Dec. 1971. p. 304–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Clevite Corp. Reference Data on Linear Electro-Optic Effects. Engineering Memorandum 64-10, by: Sliker, T.R. May 15, 1964. 9 pp.Google Scholar
  24. M.I.T. Crystal Physics Lab. A Study of the Physical Properties of High-Temperature Single Crystals, by: Smakula, A. Rept. No. Afcrl-67-0645. Sept. 1967. 124 pp. AD 663 734.Google Scholar
  25. Soga, M. et al. A Method of Growing CuCl Single Crystals with Flux. Electrochem. Soc, J., v. 114, no. 4, Apr. 1967. p. 388–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sterzer, F. et al. Cuprous Chloride Light Modulators. Optical Soc. of America, J., v. 54, no. 1, Jan. 1964. p. 62–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sueta, T. et al. Modulation of 10.6 micron Laser Radiation by CuCl. Ieee, Proc, v. 58, no. 9, Sept. 1970. p. 1378–1379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. West, C.D. Electrooptic and Related Properties of Crystals with the Zinc Blende Structure. Optical Soc. of America, J., v. 43, no. 1. 1953. p. 335.Google Scholar
  29. Aerospace Corp. EL Segundo, Calif. Labs. Div. Czochralski Growth of CuCl, by: Wilcox, W.R. and R.A. Corley. Rept. No. Tr-1001 (9320-13)-3, Apr. 1967. 15 p. AD 813 027.Google Scholar
  30. Rca. Solid State Laser Explorations, by: Wittke, J.P. et al. Tech. Rept. Afal-TR-64-334. Jan. 1965.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© IFI/Plenum Data Corporation 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. T. Milek
    • 1
  • M. Neuberger
    • 1
  1. 1.Electronic Properties Information CenterHughes Aircraft CompanyCulver CityUSA

Personalised recommendations