Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP)

  • J. T. Milek
  • M. Neuberger


Potassium dihydrogen phosphate is one of the most widely known and explored electrooptic crystals. Crystals are grown at room temperature from a water solution; excellent crystals as large as 5 cm in any dimension can be obtained commercially. Although the crystals are water soluble and fragile, they can be handled, cut, and polished without difficulty. These crystals are transparent throughout the visible and ultra-violet. Applications of KDP-type crystals was pioneered by the Brush Development Co. (now part of Clevite) and Baird Associates. Since the development of the laser in 1960, KDP has been the most widely used electrooptic material; large samples of the required optical quality have been available and the electrooptic effect is quite large.


Second Harmonic Generation Ferroelectric Phase Transition Potassium DIHYDROGEN Phosphate Soviet Phys Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Armstrong, J.A. et al. Interactions Between Light Waves in a Nonlinear Dielectric. Phys. Rev., v. 127, 1962. p. 1918–1939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashkin, A. et al. Observation of Continuous Optical Harmonic Generation with Gas Masers. Phys. Rev. Letters, v. 11, no. 1, 1963. p. 14–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baird-Atomic, Inc., Cambridge, Mass. Electro-Optic Light Modulators: Kdp, Adp, Kddp. Publication No. RP-5, June 1967. 40 p.Google Scholar
  4. Michigan Univ. Willow Run Lab. Optical Materials for Infrared Instrumentation, by: Ballard, S.S. et al. State-of-the-Art Report, Rept. no. 2389-11-S, Jan. 1959. Contract no. Nonr 1224-12. AD 217 367.Google Scholar
  5. Bantle, W. and C. Caflisch. The Piezoeffect in Ferro-Electric KH2PO4 Crystals. Helv. Phys. Acta, v. 16, 1943. p. 235–250.Google Scholar
  6. Barkla, H.M. and D.M. Finlayson. The Properties of KH2PO4Below the Curie Point. Phil. Mag., v. 44, 1953. p. 109–130.Google Scholar
  7. Bass, M. et al. Optical Rectification. Phys. Rev. Letters, v. 9, no. 11, 1962. p. 446–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bass, M. et al. Optical Rectification. Phys. Rev., v. 138, 1963. p. A534–A542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Belyaev, L.M. et al. Dielectric Constant of Crystals Having an Electro-Optical Effect. Soviet Phys. Solid State, v. 6, no. 8, Feb. 1965. p. 2007–2008.Google Scholar
  10. Bjorkholm, J.E. and A.E. Siegman. Accurate cw Measurements of Optical Second-Harmonic Generation in Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate and Calcite. Phys. Rev., v. 154, no. 3, Feb.1967. p. 851–860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Blinc, R. et al. High Temperature Phase Transition in KH2PO4. J. Chem. Phys., v. 49, no. 11, Dec. 1968. p. 4966–5000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blokh, O.G. Dispersion of r63 for Crystals of ADP and KDP. Soviet Phys. Crystal., v. 7, no. 1, 1962. p. 509–511.Google Scholar
  13. Blokh, O.G. and L.F. Lutsiv-Shumskii. The Longitudinal Electro-Optical Effect in ADP and KDP Crystals in the Near Ultraviolet and Infrared Regions. Acad. of Sci., Ussr, Bull., Phys. Ser., v. 31, no. 7, 1967. p. 1162–1163.Google Scholar
  14. Blokh, O.G. and L.F. Lutsiv-Shumskii. The Spontaneous Electro-Optical Effect in ADP and KDP Crystals. Acad. of Sci., Ussr, Bull., Phys. Ser., v. 31, no. 7, 1967. p. 1157–1161.Google Scholar
  15. Blokh, O.G. and L.F. Lutsiv-Shumskii. Photoelastic Effect in 45° X Cuts of KH2PO4 and NH4H2PO4. Soviet Physics, Solid State, v. 12, no. 1, July 1970. p. 256–257.Google Scholar
  16. Block, O.G. et al. Temperature and Wavelength Dependence of the r41 Electro-Optical Coefficient of ADP and KDP Crystals. Acad. of Sci., Ussr, Bull., Phys. Ser., v. 33, no. 2, 1969. p. 260–262.Google Scholar
  17. Boiko, A.A. and Liu Tan Fat. The Thermal Expansion of Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate in the Vicinity of the Ferroelectric Phase Transition. Soviet Phys. Cryst., v. 14, no. 5, Mar. 1970. p. 712–715.Google Scholar
  18. Brody, E.M. and H.Z. Cummins. Elasto-Optic Anomaly in KH2PO4. Phys. Rev. Letters, v. 23, no. 18, Nov. 1969. p. 1039–1041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Burdanina, N.A. et al. The Dielectric Properties of a gamma-Irradiated KDP Crystal. Soviet Phys. Crystal., v. 15, no. 4, Jan. 1971. p. 721–723.Google Scholar
  20. Busch, G. New Ferroelectrics (In Ger.). Helv. Phys. Acta, v. 11, 1938. p. 269–298.Google Scholar
  21. Busch, G. and P. Scherrer. A New Seignettoelectric Substance. Naturwiss., v. 23, 1935. p. 737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bystrova, T.G. and F.I. Fedorov. Debye Temperatures of Tetragonal and Trigonal Crystals. Soviet Phys. Cryst., v. 12, no. 4, Jan. 1968. p. 493–498.Google Scholar
  23. Calucci, E.J. Solid State Light Valve Study. Information Display, Mar.-Apr. 1965. p. 18–22.Google Scholar
  24. Carpenter, R.O. The Electro-Optic Effect in Uniaxial Crystals of the Dihydrogen Phosphate Type. III. Measurement of Coefficients. Optical Soc. of America, J., v. 40, no. 4, Apr. 1950. p. 225–229.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Carpenter, R.O. Electro-Optic Sound-on-Film Modulator. Acoustical Soc. of America, J., v. 25, no. 6, Nov. 1953. p. 1145–1148.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Clevite Corp. Electronic Res. Div. Investigation of the Birefringence of Ferroelectric Materials, by: Cook, W.R. Jr. Final Rept., Nov. 1958-June 1960. Contract No. DA-44-009-Eng-3772. July 14, 1960. 29 p. AD 262-474L.Google Scholar
  27. Clevite Corp. Electronic Res. Div. Research on Birefringent Ferroelectric Materials, by: Cook, W.R. Jr. Final Rept., Apr. 1960-Mar. 1961. Contract No. DA-44-009-Rng-4434. May 1961. AD 262 652.Google Scholar
  28. Clevite Corp. The Structure of Various Ferroelectrics: The Question of Ferro-electricity, by: Cook, W.R. Jr. Tech. Report. Afal-TR-64-265, Sept. 1964. 59 p. AD 608-324.Google Scholar
  29. Cook, W.R. Jr. Thermal Expansion of Crystals with KH2PO4 Structure. J. of Appl. Phys., v. 38, no. 4, Mar. 1967. p. 1637–1642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Craig, P.P. Critical Phenomena in Ferroelectrics. Phys. Letters, v. 20, no. 2, Feb. 1966. p. 140–142.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dixon, R.W. Photoelastic Properties of Selected Materials and Their Relevance for Applications to Acoustic Light Modulators and Scanners. J. of Applied Phys., v. 38, no. 13, Dec. 1967. p. 5149–5153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dowley., M.W. Parametric Fluorescence in ADP and KDP Excited by a 2573 A CW Pump. OPTO-ElectroNics, v. I, no. 4, Nov. 1969. p. 179–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fouskova, A. et al. Dielectric Measurements and Optical Observations of Domains in Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate. Acad. Des Sci., C.R., v. 262, no. 13, Mar. 1966. p. 907–910.Google Scholar
  34. Garland, C.W. and D.B. Novotny. Ultrasonic Velocity and Attenuation in KH2PO4. Phys. Rev., v. 177, no. 2, Jan. 1969. p. 971–975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gerber, E.A. High Frequency Vibrations of Plates Made from Isometric and Tetragonal Crystals. Ire Proc, v. 38, 1950. p. 1073–1078.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gladkii, V.V. and E.V. Sidnenko. Double Dielectric Hysteresis Loop of KD2PO4 Crystals. Soviet Phys. Solid State, v. 13, no. 10, Apr. 1972. p. 2592–3.Google Scholar
  37. GrüNberg, J. et al. Isotope Effect in the High Temperature Phase Transition of KH2PO4. Solid State Comm., v. 5, no. 11, Nov. 1967. p. 863–865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Grünberg, J. et al. High Temperature Phase Transitions and Metastability in Kdp-Type Crystals. Physica Status Solidi, b, v. 49, no. 2, 1972. p. 857–869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Harris, L.B. and G.J. Vella. Conductivity of Single Crystals of Potassium Di-hydrogen Phosphate. J. of Applied Phys., v. 37, no. 11, Oct. 1966. p. 4294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Haussühl, S. Elastic and Thermoelastic Properties of KH2PO4, KH2AsO4, NH4PO4 and RbH2PO4. Z. Fuer Krystallographie, v. 120, 1964. p. 401–414.Google Scholar
  41. Hearmon, R.F.S. The Elastic Constants of Piezoelectric Crystals. British J. of Applied Phys., v. 3, Apr. 1952. p. 120–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hill, R.M. and S.K. Ichiki. Optical Behavior of Domains in KH2PO4. Phys. Rev., v. 135, no. 6A, Sept. 1964. p. A1640–A1642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hill, R.M. and S.K. Ichiki. Infrared Absorption by Hydrogen Bonds in Single Crystal KH2PO4, Kddpo4 and KH2AsO4. J. of Chem. Phys., v. 48, no. 2, Jan. 1968. p. 838–842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jerphagnon, J. and S.K. Kurtz. Optical Nonlinear Susceptibilities: Accurate Relative Values for Quartz, Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate and Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate. Phys. Rev., B, Ser. 3, v. 1, no. 4, Feb. 1970. p. 1739–1742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jona, F. and G. Shirane. Ferroelectric Crystals, 1962. N.Y., Macmillan Co.Google Scholar
  46. Kaminow, I.P. Microwave Modulation of the Electro-Optic Effect in KH2PO4. Phys. Rev. Letters, v. 6, 1961. p. 528–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kaminow, I.P. Strain Effects in Electrooptic Light Modulators. Applied Optics, v. 3, no. 4, Apr. 1964. p. 511–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kaminow, I.P. and G.O. Harding. Complex Dielectric Constant of KH2PO4 at 9.2 GHz. Phys. Rev., v. 129, no. 4, Feb.1963. p. 1562–1566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kamysheva, L.N. et al. Nonlinear Properties of KDP Crystals in Strong Fields. Acad. of Sci., Ussr, Bull., Phys. Ser., v. 31, no. 7, July 1967. p. 1202–1206.Google Scholar
  50. Känzig, W. Ferroelectrics and Antiferro-electrics. Solid State Phys., v. 4, 1957. N.Y., Academic Press, p. 1–197.Google Scholar
  51. Kobayashi, K.K. Dynamical Theory of the Phase Transition in KH2PO4. Phys. Soc. Japan, J., v. 24, no. 3, Mar. 1968. p. 497–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kobayashi, J. et al. X-Ray Study on Thermal Expansion of Ferroelectric KH2PO4. Physica Status Solidi, a, v. 3, no. 1, Sept. 1970. p. 63–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Landolt-Bornstein. Numerical Data And Functional Relationships in Science And Technology, New Series, v. 1, Elastic Piezoelectric, Piezooptic and Electrooptic Constants of Crystals. Group III. Crystal and Solid State Physics, ed. by: Hellwege, K.-H. and A.M. Hellwege. Berlin, Ger. Springer Verlag, 1966.Google Scholar
  54. Loiacono, G.M. A Dta Study of the Ferroelectric Transition in KH2PO4-Type Crystals. Mat. Res. Bull., v. 5, no. 9, Sept. 1970. p. 775–782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Loscoe, C. and H. Mette. Optical Misalignment Due to Temperature Gradients in Electrooptic Modulator Crystals. Applied Optics, v. 5, 1966. p. 93–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Maker, P.D. et al. Effects of Dispersion and Focusing on the Production of Optical Harmonics. Phys. Rev. Letters, v. 8, no. 1, 1962. p. 21–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mason, W.P. The Elastic, Piezoelectric and Dielectric Constants of KDP and Adp. Phys. Rev., v. 69, no. 5-6, Mar. 1946. p. 173–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mason, W.P. Piezoelectric Crystals And Their Application to Ultrasonics. N.Y., Van Nostrand, 1950.Google Scholar
  59. Mason, W.P. Physical Acoustics, v. 1, pt. A. N.Y., Academic Press, 1964. p. 169–270.MATHGoogle Scholar
  60. Mccarthy, K.A. and S.S. Ballard. New Data on the Thermal Conductivity of Optical Crystals. Optical Soc. of America, J., v. 41, 1951. p. 1062–1063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Miller, R.C. et al. Quantitative Studies of Optical Harmonic Generation in CdS, BaTiO3 and KH2PO4-Type Crystals. Phys. Rev. Letters, v. 11, no. 4, 1963. p. 146–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Harvard Univ., Croft Lab. Modulation of the Linear Electro-Optic Effect at Microwave Frequencies, by: Myers, R.A. Contract No. NR-372-012, Tech. Rept. No. 433, Nov. 1963. AD 600 461.Google Scholar
  63. Univ. of Washington, Seattle, Washington. Ferroelectric Domains and Domain Motion in KH2PO4, KD2PO4 by: Oettel, R.E. M.S. in Electrical Engineering, 1965. 44 p.Google Scholar
  64. Ott, J.H. and T.R. Sliker. Linear Electro-Optic Effects in KH2PO4 and its Iso-morphs. Optical Soc. of America, J., v. 54, no. 12, Dec. 1964. p. 1442–1444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Pereverzeva, L.P. et al. Dielectric Anomalies in Crystals of KH2PO4, KD2PO4 and RbH2PO4 at High Temperatures. Soviet Physics, Solid State, v. 13, no. 11, May 1972. p. 2690–2692.Google Scholar
  66. Perfilova, V.E. and A.D. Sonin. The Quadratic Electro-Optical Effect in KDP Group Crystals. Acad. of Sci. Ussr, Bull. Phys. Ser., v. 31, no. 7, July 1967. p. 1154–7.Google Scholar
  67. Peshikov, E.V. Structural Sensitivity of the Ferroelectric Phase Transition and Dielectric Properties of Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate Crystals Irradiated with Fast Neutrons. Soviet Phys. Crystall., v. 16, no. 5, Mar. 1972. p. 820–823.Google Scholar
  68. Phillips, R.A. Temperature Variation of the Index of Refraction of Adp, KDP and Deuterated KDP. Optical Soc. of America, J., v. 56, May 1966. p. 629–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pisarevskii, Yu. V. et al. The Electro-Optical Properties of NH4H2PO4, KH2PO4, N4(CH2)6 Soviet Phys Solid State, v. 7, 1965. p. 530–531.Google Scholar
  70. Price, W.J. and H.B. Huntington. Acoustical Properties of Anisotropic Materials. Acoustical Soc. of America, J., v. 22, 1950. p. 32–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Pursey, H. et al. Measurement of the Pockels Effect in KDP at GHZ. J. of Applied Phys., v. 18, Mar. 1967. p. 285–292.Google Scholar
  72. Pyle, J.R. Laser Modulation Using Linear Electro-Optic Crystals. Tech. Note Pad 125, Dec. 1966. 35 p. Nasa N67-27128.Google Scholar
  73. Reese, W. and L.F. May. Critical Phenomena in Order-Disorder Ferroelectrics. I. Calorimetric Studies of KH2PO4. Phys. Rev., v. 162, no. 2, Oct. 10, 1967. p. 510–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Reese, W. and L.F. May. Studies of Phase Transition in Order-Disorder Ferroelectrics. II. Calorimetric Investigations of KH2PO4. Phys. Rev., v. 167, no. 2, Mar. 1968. p. 504–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Reitz, E.A. et al. (Autonetics) Electro-Optic Projector Study. Tech. Rept. No. Radc-TR-66-394, Dec. 1966. AD 646 232.Google Scholar
  76. Robinson, F.N.H. Nonlinear Optical Coefficients. Bell System Technical J., v. 46, May/June 1967. p. 913–956.Google Scholar
  77. Rosner, R.D. et al. Clamped Electro-Optic Coefficients of KDP and Quartz. Applied Optics, v. 6, Apr. 1967. p. 778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Shamburov, V.A. and I.V. Kucherova. Variation in Anomalous Birefringence in Crystals of KH2PO4. Soviet Phys. Crystal., v. 10, no. 5, Mar. 1966; p. 558–560.Google Scholar
  79. Sirdeshmukh, D.B. and V.T. Deshpande. X-Ray Determination of the Lattic Parameters of Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate at Elevated Temperatures. Acta Cryst., v. 22, no. 3, 1967. p. 438–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Skalyo, J. Jr. et al. The Pressure Dependence of the Transition Temperature in KDP and Adp. J. Phys. Chem. Solids, v. 30, no. 8, Aug. 1969. p. 2045–2051.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Clevite Corp. Reference Data on Linear Electro-Optic Effects. Engineering Memo., 64-10, by: Sliker, T.R. May 15, 1964. 9 pp.Google Scholar
  82. Sliker, T.R. and S.R. Burlage. Some Dielectric and Optical Properties of KD2 PO4. J. of Applied Phys., v. 34, no. 7, July 1963. p. 1837–1840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sonin, A.D. et al. Electro-Optic Properties of Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate and Deuterated Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate Crystals in the Region of Their Phase Transitions. Soviet Phys. Solid State, v. 8, no. 11, May 1967. p. 2758–2759.Google Scholar
  84. Stephenson, C.C. et al. Transition Temperatures in Some Dihydrogen and Dideutero Phosphates and Arsenates and Their Solid Solutions. J. of Chem. Phys., v. 21, no. 6, June 1953. p. 1110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sterzer, F. et al. Cuprous Chloride Light Modulators. Optical Soc. of America, J., v. 54, no. 1, Jan. 1964. p. 62–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Strukov, B.A. et al. Comparative Investigation of the Specific Heat of KH2PO4 Single Crystals. Phys. Status Solidi, v. 27, 1968. p. 741–749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Suemune, Y. Thermal Conductivity of the KH2PO4 Type. Phys. Soc. of Japan, J., v. 21, no. 4, Apr. 1966. p. 802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Tokumaru, Y. and R. Abe. Effect of gamma-Irradiation on the Dielectric Constants of KH2PO4. Japan. J. Appl. Phys. v. 9, no. 12, Dec. 1970. p. 1548–1549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Union Carbide Corp., Linde/Electronics Div., San Diego, California. Linde Crystals. 4 pp.Google Scholar
  90. Valpey Corp., Holliston, Mass. Infrared Optics. 4 pp.Google Scholar
  91. Van Der Ziel, J.P. and N. Bloembergen. Temperature Dependence of Optical Harmonic Generation in KH2PO4 Ferroelectrics. Phys. Rev., v. 135, 1964. p. 1662–1669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Vasilevskaya, A.S. The Electro-Optical Properties of Crystals of KDP Type. Soviet Phys. Crystall., v. 11, no. 5, Mar. 1967. p. 644–647.Google Scholar
  93. Vishnevskii V.N. and I.V. Stefanskii. Temperature Dependence of the Dispersion of the Refractivity of ADP and KDP Single Crystals. Opt. And Spectro., v. 20, no. 2, Feb. 1966. p. 195–196.Google Scholar
  94. Von Arx, A. and W. Bantle. The Inverse Piezoeffect in Ferroelectric KH2PO4 Crystals. Helv. Phys. Acta, v. 17, 1944. p. 298–318.Google Scholar
  95. Mass. Inst. of Technol., Insulation Lab. Tables of Dielectric Materials, by: Von Hippel, A. v. 4, Jan. 1953.Google Scholar
  96. Ward, J.F. and P.A. Franken. Structure of Nonlinear Optical Phenomena in Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate. Phys. Rev., v. 133, no. 1A, Jan. 1964. p. A183–A190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Ward, J.F. and G.H.C. New. Optical Rectification in Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate, Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate and Quartz. Royal Soc. Proc, v. 299A, no.1457, June 1967. p. 238–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. West, C.D. and A.S. Makas. Some Photoelastic Constants of Crystals: Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate and Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate. American Mineralogist, v. 35, 1950. p. 130.Google Scholar
  99. Yamazaki, M. and T. Ogawa. Temperature Dependences of the Refractive Indices of NH4H2PO4, KH2PO4 and Partially Deuterated KH2PO4. Optical Soc. of America, J., v. 56, no. 10, Oct. 1966. p. 1407–1408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Zernike, F. Jr. Refractive Indices of Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate and Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate between 2000Å and 1.5 microns. Optical Soc. of America, J., v. 54, Oct. 1964. p. 1215–1220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Zwicker, B. Elastic Investigation of NH4H2 PO4 and KH2PO4. Helv. Phys. Acta, v. 19, 1946. p. 523–549.Google Scholar
  102. Zwicker, B. and P. Scherrer. Electro-Optical Properties of the Ferroelectric Crystals KH2PO4 (In Ger.). Helv. Phys. Acta, v. 17, no. 5, Sept. 1944. p. 346–372.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© IFI/Plenum Data Corporation 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. T. Milek
    • 1
  • M. Neuberger
    • 1
  1. 1.Electronic Properties Information CenterHughes Aircraft CompanyCulver CityUSA

Personalised recommendations