To study the chloroplast outside the living cell, it is necessary to find experimental systems to serve as models. To begin with, special techniques for chloroplast isolation were used, e.g., grinding the Euglena cells with glass beads and, by differential centrifugation, isolating the chloroplasts. In addition, ultrasonic techniques were used to obtain colloidal dispersions of the chloroplasts. Other studies were directed toward solubilizing the chloroplasts with various low concentrations (1 to 2 percent) of nonionic detergents (e.g., digitonin, nacconal, tergitol) in aqueous solution.
KeywordsPotassium Dichromate Visual Pigment Analytical Ultracentrifuge Filter Combination Detergent Micelle
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