Quantum Chromodynamics, the Strong Nuclear Force

  • A. Karel Velan


There are no free quarks in the universe. All quarks—free in the fireball during the birth of the universe—are now confined to protons and neutrons called baryons. The combination of three of the u and d quarks, held together by the strong nuclear force and their carrier (the gluons), formed the protons and neutrons, the nucleus of atoms. In cosmic interactions and mainly in high-energy particle accelerators, other combinations of nuclear particles called baryons and mesons are created, but they are all extremely short-lived and decay in protons, neutrons, electrons, neutrinos, and photons. Mesons are combinations of one quark (q) and one antiquark (q̄), again held together by the strong force, but are short-lived.


Color Property Strong Force Color Singlet Pauli Exclusion Principle Integral Spin 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Karel Velan
    • 1
  1. 1.Velan, Inc.MontrealCanada

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