Gastrulation pp 305-311 | Cite as

Cell-Extracellular Matrix Interactions During Primary Mesenchyme Formation in the Sea Urchin Embryo

  • Michael Solursh
  • Mary Constance Lane
Part of the Bodega Marine Laboratory Marine Science Series book series (BMSS)


Gastrulation in different organisms can involve distinct morphogenetic mechanisms, at least at the cellular level. In the sea urchin, two distinct periods of gastrulation are observed (Solursh 1986). One involves the formation of the primary mesenchyme cells, which give rise to the larval skeleton, and the other involves the formation of the archenteron. Each of these illustrate different sorts of cellular activities. The formation of the primary mesenchyme involves an epithelial-mesenchymal transition followed by the apparently random migration of individual mesenchymal cells in the blastocoel until they form two ventral-lateral clumps connected by a ring of cells. The formation of the archenteron involves the infolding of cells at the vegetal plate followed by cellular rearrangements as the archenteron elongates (see chapter by McClay).


Sulfate Proteoglycan Primitive Streak Sulfate Deprivation Proteoglycan Core Protein Urea Extract 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Akasaka, K, S. Amemiya, and H. Terayama. 1980. Scanning electron microscopical study of the inside of sea urchin embryos (Pseudocentrotus depressus). Effects of aryl β-xyloside, tunicamycin and deprivation of sulfate ions. Exp. Cell Res. 129:1–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amemiya, S. 1989. Electron microscopic studies on primary mesenchyme cell ingression and gastrulation in relation to vegetal pole cell behavior in sea urchin embryos. Exp. Cell Res. 183:453–462.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anstrom, J.A. 1989. Sea urchin primary mesenchyme cells: Ingression occurs independent of microtubules. Dev. Biol. 131:269–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anstrom, J.A. and R.A. Raff. 1988. Sea urchin primary mesenchyme cells: Relation of cell polarity to the epithelial-mesenchymal transformation. Dev. Biol. 130:57–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fink, R.D. and D.R. McClay. 1985. Three cell recognition changes accompany the ingression of sea urchin primary mesenchyme cells. Dev. Biol. 107:66–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Funkunaga, Y., M. Sobue, N. Suzuka, H. Kushida, and S. Suzuki. 1975. Synthesis of a fluorogenic mucopolysaccharide by chondrocytes in cell culture with 4-methylumbelliferyl β-D-xyloside. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 381:443–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Galligani, L., J. Hopwood, N.B. Schwartz, and A. Dorfman. 1975. Stimulation of synthesis of free chondroitin sulfate chains by β-D-xyloside in cultured cells. J. Biol. Chem. 250:5400–5406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Gibbons, J.R., L.G. Tilney, and K.R. Porter. 1969. Microtubules in the formation and development of the primary mesenchyme in Arbacia punctulata. I. The distribution of microtubules. J. Cell Biol. 41:201–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gustafson, T. and H. Kinnander. 1956. Microaquaria for time-lapse cinematographic studies of morphogenesis in swimming larvae and observations on sea urchin gastrulation. Exp. Cell Res. 11:36–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gustafson, T. and L. Wolpert. 1963. The cellular basis of morphogenesis and sea urchin development. Int. Rev. Cytol. 15:139–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Herbst, C. 1904. Über die zur Entwicklung der Seeigelarven nothwendigen anorganischen Stoffe, ihre Rolle und Vertretbarkeit. III. Theil. Die Rolle der nothwendigen anorganischen Stoffe. Wilhelm Rouxs Arch. Dev. Biol. 17:306–520.Google Scholar
  12. Karp, G.C. and M. Solursh. 1974. Acid mucopolysaccharide metabolism, the cell surface, and primary mesenchyme cell activity in the sea urchin embryo. Dev. Biol. 41:110–123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Katow, H. and M. Solursh. 1980. Ultrastructure of primary mesenchyme cell ingression in the sea urchin, Lytechnius pictus. J. Exp. Zool. 213:231–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Katow, H. and M. Solursh. 1981. Ultrastructural and time-lapse studies of primary mesenchyme cell behavior in normal and sulfate-deprived sea urchin embryos. Exp. Cell Res. 136:233–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lane M.C. and M. Solursh. 1988. Dependence of sea urchin primary mesenchyme cell migration on xyloside- and sulfate-sensitive cell surface-associated components. Dev. Biol. 127:78–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lane, M.C. and M. Solursh. 1991. Primary mesenchyme cell migration requires a chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan. Dev. Biol. 143:389–397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Solursh, M. 1986. Migration of sea urchin primary mesenchyme cells, p. 391–431. In: Developmental Biology: A Comprehensive Synthesis, vol 2, The Cellular Basis of Morphogenesis. L.W. Browder (Ed.). Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Solursh, M., S.L. Mitchell, and H. Katow 1986. Inhibition of cell migration in sea urchin embryos by β-D-xyloside. Dev. Biol 118:325–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Solursh, M. and J.P. Revel. 1978. A scanning electron microscope study of cell shape and cell appendages in the primitive streak region of the rat and chick embryo. Differentiation 11:185–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Venkatasubramanian, K and M. Solursh. 1984. Adhesive and migratory behavior of normal and sulfate-deficient sea urchin cells in vitro. Exp. Cell Res. 154:421–431.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Yamada, KM. and J.A. Weston. 1975. The synthesis, turnover, and artificial restoration of a major cell surface glycoprotein. Cell 5:75–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Solursh
    • 1
  • Mary Constance Lane
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of IowaIowa CityUSA

Personalised recommendations