Inverse Photoemission and Other Empty-State Techniques

  • N. V. Smith
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSB, volume 283)


Inverse photoemission spectroscopy (IPES) is now firmly established as the major technique for the study of empty electronic states in solids and at their surfaces.1,2 Other empty-state spectroscopies3,4 include APS (appearance potential spectroscopy), XAS (x-ray absorption spectroscopy) and 2PPE (two-photon photoemission spectroscopy). The aim of this paper is to describe a selection of such methods, and to offer for discussion how they might profitably be used in the study of clusters.


Transition Metal Surface Elemental Ferromagnet Surface Potential Barrier Inverse Photoemission Affinity Level 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. V. Smith
    • 1
  1. 1.AT&T Bell LaboratoriesMurray HillUSA

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