The Signal Transduction Pathway Upstream of CDC25 — ras — Adenylate Cyclase in the Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae and its Relationship to Nutrient Control of Cell Cycle Progression
In recent years several groups have made great efforts to unravel the function of the R A S genes in yeast in the hope of providing a model which could lead to a better understanding of the physiological role of mammalian ras genes and their oncogenic alleles. This research has led to two crucial breakthroughs: 1. The RAS proteins in yeast regulate adenylate cyclase activity in a way similar to the GS proteins of mammalian adenylate cyclase (Gibbs and Marshall, 1989) and 2. cAMP and hence also the RAS proteins, are involved in the control of progression over the ‘start’ (or decision) point in the G1 phase of the yeast cell cycle (Gibbs and Marshall, 1989). Particularly striking findings were that strains with yeast homologues of mammalian ras oncogenes and strains with elevated cAMP levels or elevated activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase were unable to arrest at the ‘start’ point of the cell cycle under conditions of nutrient deprivation (Toda et al., 1985; Sass et al., 1986). Under these conditions wild type yeast cells arrest at ‘start’ and subsequently enter a resting state called GO (Pringle and Hartwell, 1981). On the other hand, strains with temperature-sensitive mutations in RAS or adenylate cyclase arrested at ‘start’ when shifted to the restrictive temperature (Matsumoto et al., 1985; De Vendittis et al., 1986).
KeywordsSugar Fermentation Respiration Carbonyl Cyanide
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