GRO: A Novel Chemotactic Cytokine

  • Ruth Sager
  • Stephen Haskill
  • Anthony Anisowicz
  • Douglas Trask
  • Marilyn C. Pike
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 305)


Cytokines are small secreted regulatory peptides that act primarily in a paracrine fashion to provide a signalling system between different cell types. Although cytokine functions were initially associated with myeloid and lymphocytic responses to infection, current studies are demonstrating regulatory functions in growth and differentiation as well. Our studies with the GRO gene represent one of the first to describe a novel cytokine expressed by fibroblasts and epithelial cells as well as cells of the immune system, with regulatory functions both in growth and in the inflammatory response (1, 2, 3).


Bladder Carcinoma Cell Line Infer Amino Acid Sequence Cytokine Function Lymphocytic Response Interferon Gene Regulation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Anisowicz, A., L. Bardwell, and R. Sager. 1987. Constitutive over-expression of a novel growth-regulated gene in transformed Chinese hamster and human cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84: 7188–7192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anisowicz, A., D. Zajchowski, G. Stenman, and R. Sager. 1988. Functional diversity of GRO gene expression in human fibroblasts and mammary epithelial cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85: 9645–9649.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sager, R. 1990. GRO as a cytokine. In: Molecular and Cellular Biology of Cytokines. M.C. Powanda, J.J. Oppenheim, M.J. Kluger, and C.A. Dinnarello, eds. Alan Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Richmond, A., E. Balentien, H.G. Thomas, J. Spiess, R. Bordoni, U. Francke, and R. Derynck. 1988. Molecular characterization and chromosomal mapping of melanoma growth stimulating activity, a growth factor structurally related to β-thromboglobulin. EMBO J. 7: 2025–2033.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Haskill, S., A. Peace, J. Morris, S.A. Sporn, A. Anisowicz, S.W. Lee, T. Smith, G. Martin, P. Ralph, and R. Sager. 1990. Identification of three related human GRO genes encoding cytokine functions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (in press).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sporn, S.A., D.F. Eierman, C.E. Johnson, G. Martin, M. Ladner, and S. Haskill. 1990. Monocyte adherence to matrix components results in selective induction of novel genes sharing homology with mediators of inflammation and tissue repair. J. Immunol. 144: 4434–4441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lenardo, M., and D. Baltimore. 1989. NFkB: a pleiotropic mediator of inducible and tissuespecific gene control. Cell 58: 227–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Anisowicz, A., M. Messineo, S. Lee, and R. Sager. 1990. NFkB mediates IL-1/TNF induction of GRO in human fibroblasts, (in preparation).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lenardo, M., C. Fan, T. Maniatis, and D. Baltimore. 1989. The involvement of NFkB in ȣ -interferon gene regulation reveals its roles as widely inducible mediator of signal transduction. Cell 58: 287–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pike, M.C., D. Trask, and R. Sager. 1990. Recombinant GRO gene product ischemotactic for human neutrophils. Clin. Res. 38: 479a.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pike, M., D. Trask, and R. Sager. 1990. Recombinant human GRO is chemotactic for human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. (submitted).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zigmond, S.H., and J.G. Hirsch. 1973. Leukocyte locomotion and Chemotaxis — methods for evaluation and demonstration of a cell-derived chemotactic factor. J. Exp. Med. 137: 387–392.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Matsushima, K., K. Morishita, T. Yoshimura, S. Lavu, Y. Kobayashi, W. Lew, E. Appella, H.F. Kung, E.J. Leonard, and J.J.Oppenheim. 1988. Molecular cloning of a human monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor (MDNCF) and the induction of MDNCF mRNA by interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor. J. Exp. Med. 167: 1883–1893.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wolpe, S.D., B. Sherry, D. Juers, G. DaVatelis, R.W. Yurt, andA. Cerami. 1989. Identification and characterization of macrophage inflammatory protein 2. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86: 612–616.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Oquendo, P., J. Alberta, D. Wen, J.L. Graycar, R. Derynck, and C.D. Stiles.1989. The platelet-derived growth factor-inducible KC gene encodes a secretory protein related to platelet α granule proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 264: 4133–4137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tekamp-Olson, P., C. Gallegos, D. Bauer, J. McClain, B. Sherry, M. Fabre, S. van Deventer, and A. Cerami. 1990. Cloning and characterization of cDNAs for murine MIP-2 and human MIP-2 homologs. (this book, abstract).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ruth Sager
    • 1
  • Stephen Haskill
    • 2
  • Anthony Anisowicz
    • 1
  • Douglas Trask
    • 1
  • Marilyn C. Pike
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Cancer GeneticsDana-Farber Cancer InstituteBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Microbiology & Immunology Lineberger Cancer Research CenterUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  3. 3.Arthritis UnitMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations