Granulocyte and Monocyte Chemotactic Factors: Stimuli and Producer Cells
The interest of our laboratory in cytokine production by various cell types originates from the early observation that different types of interferon (IFN) are released, depending on the inducer and cell type used. Indeed, infection of leukocytes with virus results in production of IFN-α (formerly leukocyte IFN), whereas fibroblasts release IFN-β (formerly fibroblast IFN) in response to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) or virus (1). Further studies on IFN allowed us to discover a leukocyte-derived protein, that exerts an indirect antiviral activity through IFN-β induction on fibroblasts. The molecule involved could be identified as interleukin-lβ (IL-1β) (2), now well known as an inducer of other cytokines such as IL-6 (3). In contrast to IFN, IL-6 exists as a single molecular species, but can be induced in a variety of cells, including fibroblasts and leukocytes. These cell types also produce granulocyte (GCP/IL-8) and monocyte (MCP) chemotactic proteins in response to IL-1, other cytokines and cytokine inducers (Table 1). In addition, different tumor cell lines are capable of releasing these chemotactic molecules.
KeywordsMeasle Virus Chemotactic Factor Human Dermal Fibroblast Chemotactic Activity Diploid Fibroblast
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