Absorption and Action Spectroscopy of Phoborhodopsin (Sensory Rhodopsin II)
The presence of the second photosensory pigment (Takahashi et al., 1985a) called phoborhodopsin (pR, Tomioka et al., 1986b) or sensory rhodopsin II (sR-II, Spudich et al., 1986a) was first suggested during the experiment on action spectroscopy of a Halobacterium halobium (H. halobium) mutant (Tomioka et al., 1986a). H. halobium is an extremely halophilic bacterium in which four retinal-containing membrane proteins (often referred to as bacterial rhodopsins) have been discovered so far. Among them, bacteriorhodopsin (bR) and halorhodopsin (hR) utilize light energy to pump out protons from the interior of the cell, or to transport chloride ions inwardly across the cell membrane, respectively (for review, see Henderson et al., 1990; Khorana, 1988; Lanyi, 1990). The first photosensory pigment was found in a both bR and hR-defective strain, which is deficient in light-driven transmembrane ion movement but retains the photobehavioral response (Bogomolni and Spudich, 1982; Spudich and Spudich, 1982). The pigment was called sensory rhodopsin or sensory rhodopsin I (sR or sR-I; Spudich and Bogomolni, 1984). This was the best candidate for receptors of both photoattractant and photorepellent responses which have been shown in halobacteria (Hildebrand and Dencher, 1975).
KeywordsAction Spectrum Visual Pigment Actinic Light Halophilic Bacterium Negative Phototaxis
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