Germfree Animals Intestinal Glycoconjugates and Colonization

  • Tore Midtvedt
  • Göran Larson
  • Catharina Svanborg
Part of the Federation of European Microbiological Societies Symposium Series book series (FEMS, volume 58)


The mucus substance found in the intestinal tract of conventional mammals, including man, will be partly exogenous, originating from the diet, partly derived from the microorganisms present, and partly endogenous, mainly comprising the epithelial mucus which is secreted continuously by the epithelial lining. The latter material is usually termed as mucin, indicating a mucus consisting mainly of glycoproteins. However, some other glycocon-jugates, as glycolipids, glycosphingolipids etc., might be present.


Cecal Content Conventional Animal Intestinal Mucin Normal Microflora Epithelial Mucus 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    G. Lindstedt, S. Lindstedt, and B. E. Gustafsson: Mucus in intestinal contents of germfree rats. J. Exp. Med., 121: 201–213, 1965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    L. C. Hoskins, and N. Zauncheck: Bacterial degradation of gastrointestinal mucins. I: Comparison of mucus constituents in the stools of germ-free and conventional rats. Gastroenterol., 54:210–217, 1968Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    W. J. Loesche: Protein and carbohydrate composition of cecal contents of gnotobiotic rats and mice. Proc Soc Exp. Biol. Med., 128:195–199, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. K. Wold, R. Khan, and T. Midtvedt: Intestinal glycoproteins of germfree rats. Acta path. microbiol. scand., 79:525–530, 1971.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. K. Wold, T. Midtvedt, and R. Winsnes: Intestinal glycoproteins of germfree rats. II. Further studies on the composition of water-soluble extracts from intestinal mucus. Acta Chem. Scand., 27:2997–3002, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. K. Wold, T. Midtvedt, and R. W. Jeanloz: Intestinal glycoproteins of germfree rats. III. Characterization of a water-soluble glycoprotein fraction. Acta Chem. Scand., 28:227–284, 1974.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. K. Wold, B. Smestad, and T. Midtvedt: Intestinal glycoprotein of germfree rats. IV. Oligosaccharides obtained by chemical degradation of a water-soluble glycoprotein fraction. Acta Chem. Scand., 29:703–709, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    B. Carlstedt-Duke: The normal microflora and mucin. In: The regulatory and protective role of the normal microflora. R. Grubb, T. Midtvedt and E. Norin, eds. The Macmillan Press Ltd. Basingstoke, Great Britain, 1989.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    B. Carlstedt-Duke, T. Midtvedt, C. E. Nord, and B. E. Gustafsson: Isolation and characterization of a mucin-degrading strain of Peptostreptococcus from rat intestinal tract. Acta path. microbiol. scand., 94:292–300, 1986.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    G. Larson, and T. Midtvedt: Glycosphingolipids in feces of germfree-rats as a source for studies of developmental changes of intestinal epithelial cell surface carbohydrates. Glycoconjugate, 5:285–292, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    D. Bouhours, and J-F. Bouhours: Developmental changes of rats intestinal glycolipids. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 99:1384–1389, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    H. Leffler and C. Svanborg-Eden: Chemical identification of a glycosphingolipid receptor for Escherichia coli attaching to human urinary tract epithelial cells and agglutinating human erythrocytes. FEMS Lett., 8:127–134, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    K-A. Karlson: Animal glycolipids as attachment sites for microbes. Chem. Phys. Lipids, 42:153–174, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    P. de Man, C. van Kooten, L Aarden, I. Engberg, and C. Svanborg-Eden: Interleukin-6 induced at mucosal surface by gram-negative bacterial infection. Infect. Immun., 57:3383–3388, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tore Midtvedt
    • 1
  • Göran Larson
    • 2
  • Catharina Svanborg
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Medical Microbial EcologyKarolinska InstituteStockholmSweden
  2. 2.Department of Clinical ChemistryUniversity of GothenburgGothenburgSweden
  3. 3.Department of Clinical ImmunologyUniversity of LundLundSweden

Personalised recommendations