Shigella Toxin and Related Proteins — Translocation to the Cytosol and Mechanism of Action
Shigella species and certain E. coli strains produce toxins that are exceedingly toxic to many mammalian cells (van Heyningen and Gladstone, 1953; Olsnes and Eiklid, 1980; Karmali et al., 1985; O’Brian and Holmes, 1987). Thus, as little as 0.1 pg/ml Shigella toxin is enough to kill a culture of sensitive HeLa cells. Shigella toxin and the related Shiga-like toxins have been cloned and sequenced (Calderwood et al., 1987; Kozlov et al., 1987; Strockbine et al., 1988). The toxins act by inactivating the ribosomes and thereby block protein synthesis (Reisbig, Olsnes and Eiklid, 1981). A necessary step in their mechanism of action is to translocate to the cytosol an enzymatically active polypeptide chain.
KeywordsHemolytic Uremic Syndrome Diphtheria Toxin Shiga Toxin Plant Toxin Shigella Species
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