HIV-1 Infection of a Non-CD4-Expressing Variant of HUT-78 Cells: Lack of Inhibition by LEU3A Antibodies and Enhancement by Cationic DOTMA Liposomes
CD4 and CD8 are membrane glycoproteins that have been implicated in recognition of MHC class-II (HLA-DR, DQ, DP and I-A/I-E) and class-I (HLA-A,B, C and H-2) antigens, respectively. CD4 and CD8 are expressed on functionally distinct populations of mature peripheral T lymphocytes; CD4 on helper/inducer cells and CD8 on cytotoxic/supressor cells (Reinherz and Schlossman, 1980). The CD4 molecule is expressed as a monomer on the cell surface of T lymphocytes and some cells of the macrophage/monocytes lineage, and is a transmembrane glycoprotein of ̃ 55 kD with homology to members of the immunoglobulin (Ig) supergene family. It has four external 1g variable-like domains (V1 - V4), one transmembrane domain and a cytoplasmic tail of 40 residues (Maddon et al, 1985). The precise role of the CD4 molecule in T cell function is unknown. It has been proposed that CD4 may increase the avidity of the T cell receptor (TcR) for its ligand(s) by directly binding to monomorphic determinants of class II MHC molecules on target cells. Transfection of a cDNA encoding the human CD4 molecule into antigen-responsive T-cell hybridomas greatly enhanced the cells’ responsiveness to antigenic stimulation (Doyle and Strominger, 1987; Gay et al., 1987; Sleckman et al., 1987). In addition, CD4 may associate with the TcR as part of the antigen recognition process (Janeway et al.,1987; Saizawa et al, 1987) and may be directly involved in the resultant signal transduction (Emmerich et al., 1987; Carrel et al., 1988), possibly in concert with a lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (reviewed by Robey and Axel, 1990).
KeywordsHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Large Unilamellar Vesicle Antigen Receptor Complex
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