Virus-Host Cell Interactions in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infections
Considerable evidence indicates that the CD4 molecule, which is expressed primarily on helper T lymphocytes and cells of the mononuclear phagocyte lineage, serves as an essential component of the cell surface receptor for both the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses.1,2,3 Fc receptor-mediated enhancement of HIV infection of monocytoid cells and infection of these cells via the complement receptor have also reported. 4,5 The expression of CD4 molecules on the surface of CD4-transfected human fibroblastoid and epitheloid cells confers susceptibility to infection with certain isolates of HIV-I.6 Yet, the in vitro infection of CD4-negative fibroblasts appears to depend on perhaps somewhat artifactual conditions such as the use of very high multiplicities of infection and the subsequent requirement of cocultivation with CD4+ cells to demonstrate the presence of detectable HIV.7 More recently, it has been shown that IgG Fc receptors can be induced on the surface of fibroblasts by cytomegalovirus and that these cells become susceptible to immune complex-mediated HIV-1 infection as a consequence.8 However, the significance of the infection of fibroblasts and other CD4 negative cells to the pathogenesis of AIDS remains unclear.
KeywordsHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Mononuclear Phagocyte Osteogenic Sarcoma Cell Line
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