Advertisement

Transfer and Metabolism of Thyroid-Related Substances in the Placenta

  • Charles H. Emerson
  • Lewis E. Braverman
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 299)

Abstract

The primary role of the placenta is to transfer substances between the mother and fetus. Another function is to metabolize fetal substrates, perhaps including thyroid hormones. This paper will outline general aspects of placental transfer (PT), discuss methods that have been used to evaluate “thyroid-related” substances (TRSs), and review the current information regarding their PT.

Keywords

Fetal Tissue Congenital Hypothyroidism Placental Transfer Fetal Plasma Placental Membrane 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Azukizawa, M., Murata, Y., Ikenoue, T., Martin, C.B. Jr. and Hershman, J.M., 1976, Effect of thyrotropin-releasing hormone on secretion of thyrotropin, prolactin, thyroxine, and triiodothyronine in pregnant and fetal rhesus monkeys, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 43: 1020.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Banovac, K., Bzik, L., Tislaric, D. and Mekso, M., 1980, Conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine and reverse triiodothyronine in human placenta and fetal membranes, Hormone Research, 12: 253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beard, R.W. The effects of diabetes on placental transfer. In: Placental Transfer, edited by Chamberlain, G.V.P. and Wilkinson, A.W. Tunbridge Wells: Pitman Medical Publishing, 1979, p. 205.Google Scholar
  4. Berhe, A., Bardsley, W.G., Harkes, A. and Sibley, C.P., 1987, Molecular charge effects on the protein permeability of the guinea-pig placenta, Placenta, 8: 365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carr, E.A.Jr., Deierwaltes, W.H., Raman, G., Dodson, V.N., Tanton, J., Betts, J.S., Stambaugh, R.A., Spafford, N.R. and Tanner, K., 1959, The Effect of Maternal Thyroid Function on Fetal Thyroid Function and Development, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 19: 1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Castro, M.I., Braverman, L.E., Alex, S., Wu, C.F. and Emerson, C.H., 1985, Inner-ring deiodination of 3,5,3’-triiodothyronine in the in situ perfused guinea pig placenta, J. Clin. Invest., 76: 1921.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Castro, M.I., Alex, S., Young, R.A., Braverman, L.E. and Emerson, C.H., 1986, Total and free serum thyroid hormone concentrations in fetal and adult pregnant and nonpregnant guinea pigs, Endocrinology, 118: 533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chopra, I.J., Sack, J. and Fisher, D.A., 1975, 3,3’,5’Triiodothyronine (reverse T3) and 3,3’,5-triiodothyronine (T3) in fetal and adult sheep: studies of metabolic clearance rates, production rates, serum binding, and thyroidal content relative to thyroxine, Endocrinology, 97:1080.Google Scholar
  9. Cooper, E., Gibbens, M., Thomas, C.R., Lowy, C. and Burke, C.W., 1983, Conversion of Thyroxine to 3,3’,5’Triiodothyronine in the Guinea Pig Placenta: in Vivo Studies, Endocrinology, 112: 1808.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dirmikis, S.M. and Munro, D.S., 1975, Placental Transmission of Thyroid-stimulating Immunoglobulins, Br. Med. J., 2: 665.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. DiStefano, J.J.III, Durando, A.R., Jang, M., Jenkins, D., Johnson, D.J., Mak, P., Marshall, T., Mons, B., Warsaysky, A. and Fisher, D.A., 1973, Estimates and estimation errors of hormone secretion, transport and disposal rates in the maternal-fetal system, Endocrinology, 93: 324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dussault, J.H. and Coulombe, P., 1980, Minimal Placental Transfer of L-Thyroxine ( T4) in the Rat, Pediatr. Res., 14: 228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ekins, R., 1990, Measurement of free hormones in blood, Endocr. Rev., 11: 5.Google Scholar
  14. El-Zaheri, M.M., Vagenakis, A.G., Hinerfeld, L., Emerson, C.H. and Braverman, L.E., 1981, Maternal thyroid function is the major determinant of amniotic fluid 3,3’,5’-triiodothyronine in the rat, J. Clin. Invest., 67: 1126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Emerson, C.H. Role of the placenta in fetal thyroid homeostasis. In: Research in Congenital Hypothyroidism, edited by Delange, F., Fisher, D.A. and Glinoer, D. New York: Plenum Press, 1989, p. 31–43.Google Scholar
  16. Faber, J.J. and Thornburg, K.L. Placental Physiology Structure and Function of Fetomaternal Exchange, New York: Raven Press, 1983. pp. 115–137.Google Scholar
  17. Fisher, D.A., Dussault, J.H., Erenberg, A. and Lam, R.W., 1972, Thyroxine and Triiodothyronine Metabolism in Maternal and Fetal Sheep, Pediatr. Res., 6: 891.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fisher, D.A. and Klein, A.H., 1981, Thyroid Development and Disorders of Thyroid Function in the Newborn, N. Engl. J. Med., 304: 702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Green, H.G., Gareis, F.J., Shepard, T.H. and Kelley, V.C., 1971, Cretinism associated with maternal sodium iodide I 131 therapy during pregnancy, Am. J. Dis. Child., 122: 247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Grumbach, M.M. and Werner, S.C., 1956, Transfer of thyroid hormone across the human placenta at term, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 16: 1392.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ibbertson, H.K., Seddon, R.J. and Croxson, M.S., 1975, Fetal hypothyroidism complicating medical treatment of thyrotoxicosis in pregnancy, Clin. Endocrinol., 4: 521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kaplan, M.M. and Shaw, E., 1984, Type II iodothyronine 5’deiodination by human and rat placenta in vitro, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 59: 1808.Google Scholar
  23. Knobil, E. and Josimovich, J.B., 1959, Placental transfer of thyrotropic hormone, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and insulin in the rat, Ann. NY. Acd. Sci., 75: 895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Logothetopoulos, J. and Scott, R.F., 1956, Active iodide transport across the placenta of the guinea-pig, rabbit and rat, J. Physiol., 132: 365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. London, W.T., Money, W.L. and Rawson, R.W., 1963, Placental transport of I131-labeled thyroxine and triiodothyronine in the guinea pig, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 73: 205.Google Scholar
  26. Nathanielsz, P.W., Comline, R.S., Silver, M. and Thomas, A.L., 1973, Thyroid function in the foetal lamb during the last third of gestation, J. Endocrinol., 58: 535.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nogimori, T., Alex, S., Baker, S. and Emerson, C.H., 1985, Thyrotropin-releasing hormone metabolism and extraction by the perfused guinea pig placenta, Endocrinology, 117: 565.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Obregon, M.J., Mallol, J., Pastor, R., Morreale de Escobar, G. and Escobar del Rey, F., 1984, L-thyroxine and 3,5,3’-triiodoL-thyronine in rat embryos before onset of fetal thyroid function, Endocrinology, 114: 305.Google Scholar
  29. Pearson, J.F. Gas exchange. In: Placental Transfer, edited by Chamberlain, G.V.P. and Wilkinson, A.W. Tunbridge Wells: Pitman Medical Publishing, 1979, p. 108–117.Google Scholar
  30. Peterson, R.R. and Young, W.C., 1952, The problem of placental permeability for thyrotropin, propylthiouracil and thyroxine in the guinea pig, Endocrinology, 50: 218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Postel, S., 1957, Placental transfer of perchlorate and triiodothyronine in the guinea pig, Endocrinology, 60: 53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Raiti, S., Holzman, G.B., Scott, R.I. and Blizzard, R.M., 1967, Evidence for the Placental Transfer of Tri-iodothyronine in Human Beings, N. Engl. J. Med., 277: 456.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ramsay, I., Kaur, S. and Krassas, G., 1983, Thyrotoxicosis in pregnancy: results of treatment by antithyroid drugs combined with T4, Clin. Endocrinol., 18: 73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ramsey, E.M. and Donner, M.W. Placental Vasculature and Circulation, Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1980.Google Scholar
  35. Ramsey, E.M. The Placenta Human and Animal, New York:Praeger Publishers, 1982. Ed. 2 pp. 31–32.Google Scholar
  36. Reynolds, F. Transfer of drugs. In: Placental Transfer, edited by Chamberlain, G.V.P. and Wilkinson, A.W. Tunbridge Wells: Pitman Medical Publishing, 1979, p. 168–170.Google Scholar
  37. Roti, E., Fang, S.L., Green, K., Emerson, C.H. and Braverman, L.E., 1981a, Human placenta is an active site of thyroxine and 3,3’,5-triiodothyronine tyrosyl ring deiodination, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 53: 498.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Roti, E., Gnudi, A., Braverman, L.E., Robuschi, G., Emanuele, R., Bandini, P., Benassi, L., Pagliani, A. and Emerson, C.H., 1981b, Human cord blood concentrations of thyrotropin, thyroglobulin, and iodothyronines after maternal administration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 53:813.Google Scholar
  39. Roti, E., Braverman, L.E., Fang, S.L., Alex, S. and Emerson, C.H., 1982a, Ontogenesis of placental inner ring thyroxine deiodinase and amniotic fluid 3,3’,5’-triiodothyronine concentration in the rat, Endocrinology, 111: 959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Roti, E., Fang, S.L., Braverman, L.E. and Emerson, C.H., 1982b, Rat placenta is an active site of inner ring deiodination of thyroxine and 3,3’,5-triiodothyronine, Endocrinology, 110: 34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Roti, E., Gnudi, A. and Braverman, L.E., 1983, The placental transport, synthesis and metabolism of hormones and drugs which affect thyroid function. [Review], Endocr. Rev., 4: 131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rowland, M. and Tozer, T.N. Clinical pharmacokinetics, Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1980. pp. 17.Google Scholar
  43. Rudolph, A.M. and Heymann, M.A., 1970, Circulatory changes during growth in the fetal lamb, Circulation Research, 26: 289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Schneider, H., Proegler, M., Sodha, R. and Danois, J., 1987, Asymmetrical transfer of a-aminoiosbutyric acid ( AIB), leucine and lysine across the in vitro perfused human placenta, Placenta, 8: 141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Steven, D.H. and Samuel, C.A. The anatomy of placental transfer. In: Placental Transfer, edited by Chamberlain, G.V.P. and Wilkinson, A.W. Tunbridge Wells: Pitmann Medical Publishing, 1979, p. 2–6.Google Scholar
  46. Stulc, J., 1988, Is there control of solute transport at placental level, Placenta, 9: 19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Suzuki, M., Yoshida, K., Sakurada, T., Kaise, N., Kaise, K., Fukazawa, H., Nomura, T., Itagaki, Y., Yonemitsu, K., Yamamoto, M. and et, a.1., 1986, Effect of changes in thyroid state on metabolism of thyroxine by rat placenta, Endocrinol. Jpn., 33: 37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Thomas, A.L., Jack, P.M.B., Mannus, J.G. and Nathanielsz, P.W., 1975, Effect of synthetic thyrotropin releasing hormone on thyrotropin and prolactin concentrations in the peripheral plasma of the pregnant ewe, lamb fetus and neonatal lamb, Biol. Neonat., 26: 109.Google Scholar
  49. Vulsma, T., Gons, M.H. and de Vijlder, J.J., 1989, Maternal-fetal transfer of thyroxine in congenital hypothyroidism due to total organification defect or thyroid agenesis, N. Engl. J. Med., 321: 13.Google Scholar
  50. Wynn, R.M. Fine structure of the placenta. In: The Placenta and its Maternal Supply Line, edited by Gruenwald, P. Baltimore: University Park Press, 1975, p. 56–79.Google Scholar
  51. Yoshida, K., Suzuki, M., Sakurada, T., Kitaoka, H., Kaise, N., Kaise, K., Fukazawa, H., Nomura, T., Yamamoto, M., Saito, S. and Yoshinaga, K., 1984, Changes in thyroxine monodeiodination in rat liver, kidney and placenta during pregnancy, Acta Endocrinologica (Copenhagen), 107: 495.Google Scholar
  52. Yoshida, K., Suzuki, M., Sakurada, T., Shinkawa, O., Takahashi, T., Furuhashi, N., Kaise, N., Kaise, K., Kitaoka, H., Fukazawa, H., Nomura, T., Itagaki, Y., Yamamoto, M., Saito, S. and Yoshinaga, K., 1985, Human placental thyroxine inner ring monodeiodinase in complicated pregnancy, Metabolism, 34: 535.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Yudilevich, D.L. and Sweiry, J.H., 1985, Transport of amino acids in the placenta, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 822: 169.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles H. Emerson
    • 1
  • Lewis E. Braverman
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Massachusetts Medical SchoolWorcesterUSA

Personalised recommendations