Preparation Techniques for Diamond-Like Carbon

  • Yves Catherine
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSB, volume 266)


There have recently been many publications reporting efforts to produce carbon thin films with diamond-like properties. It appears to be possible to make mechanically hard, high resistivity (>1012 Ωcm) semitransparent carbon films by a variety of ion beam and plasma techniques. This kind of films can be deposited by low-energy carbon ion beam1–3 or by dual beam4 and ion plating techniques,5 by RF sputtering6,7 or RF and DC plasma decomposition of a hydrocarbon gas or other alkanes.8–10


Thin Solid Film Carbon Film Electron Cyclotron Resonance Amorphous Carbon Film High Frequency Discharge 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    S. Aisenberg and R. Chabot, Ion Beam Deposition of Thin Films of Diamondlike Carbon, J. Appl. Phys., 42: 2953 (1971). Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    C. Weissmantel, K. Bewilogua, D. Dietrich, H.J. Erler, H.J. Hinnerberg, S. Klose, W. Nowick and G. Reisse, Structure and properties of quasi-amorphous fFilms prepared by ion beam techniques, Thin Solid Films, 72: 19 (1980). Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    T.J. Moravec and T.W. Orent, Electron spectroscopy of ion beam and hydrocarbon plasma generated diamond like carbon films, J. Vac. Sci. Technol., 18: 226 (1981). Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    M.J. Mirtich, D.M. Swec and J.C. Angus, Dual ion beam deposition of carbon films with diamond-like properties, Thin Solid Films, 131: 245 (1985). Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    K. Bewilogua, D. Dietrich, L. Pagel, C. Schürer and C. Weissmantel, Structure and properties of transparent and hard carbon films, Surface Science, 86: 308 (1979). Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    N. Savvides and B. Window, Diamond-like amorphous carbon films prepared by magnetron sputtering of graphite, J. Vac. Sci. Technol.,A3: 2386 (1985). Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    S. Craig and G.L. Harding, Structure, Optical properties and decomposition kinetics of sputtered hydrogenated carbon, Thin Solid Films, 97: 345 (1982). Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    L. Holland and S.M. Ohja, Deposition of hard and insulating carbonaceous films on a RF target in a butane plasma, Thin Solid Films, 48: L 21–23 (1978). Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. Bubenzer, B. Dischler, G. Brandt and P. Koidl, R.F. Plasma deposited amorphous hydrogenated hard carbon thin Films • Preparation, Properties and Applications, J. Appl. Phys. 54: 4590 (1983). Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Y. Catherine and P. Couderc, Electrical characteristics and growth kinetics in discharges used for plasma deposition of amorphous carbon, Thin Solid Films,144: 265 (1986). Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    J.C. Angus, P. Koidl and S. Domitz, Carbon thin films, in plasma deposited thin Films, J. Mort and F. Jansen ed., CRC Press, BocaRaton (1986).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    S.F. Pellicori, C.M..Peterson and T.P. Henson, Transparent carbon films; Comparison of properties between ion and plasma deposition processes, J. Vac. Sci. Technol.,A4: 2350 (1986). Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. Fujimori, T. Kasai and T. Inamura, Carbon film formation by laser evaporation and ion beam sputtering, Thin Solid Films 92: 71 (1982). Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. Kitabatake and K. Wasa, Growth of diamond at room temperature by an ion-beam sputter deposition under hydrogen ion bombardment, J. Appl. Phys. 58: 1693 (1985). Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. Aisenberg, Properties and Applications of diamond like carbon films, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A2: 369 (1984). Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    N. Wada, P.J. Gaczi and S.A. Solin, Diamond like 3 - fold coordinated amorphous carbon, J. Non Crystal. Solids 35–36: 543 (1980). Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. Hiraki, T. Kawano and Y. Kawakami, Tetrahedral Carbon Film by Hydrogen Gas Reactive RF - sputtering of Graphite onto Low Temperature Substrate, Solid State Comm.,50: 713 (1984). Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    D.R. Mc Kenzie, R.C. Mc Phedran, N. Savvides and L.C. Botten, Properties and Structure of amorphous hydrogenated carbon films, Phil. Mag. B 48: 341 (1983). Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    C. Wyon, R. Gillet and L. Lombard, Properties of amorphous carbon films produced by magnetron sputtering, Thin Solid Films 122: 203 (1984). Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    D.R. Mc Kenzie and L.M. Briggs, Properties of hydrogenated carbon films produced by reactive magnetron sputtering, Solar Energy Mat. 6: 97 (1981). Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    S. Berg and L.P. Andersson, Diamond-like carbon films produced in a butane plasma, Thin Solid Films, 58: 117 (1979). Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    S.M. Ojha, M. Norström and D. Mc Culluch, The growth kinetics and properties of hard and insulating carbonaceous films grown in an RF discharge, Thin Solid Films,60: 213 (1979). Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    K. Kobayashi, N. Mutsukura and Y. Machi, Deposition of hard carbon films by the RF glow discharge method, Thin Solid Films 158: 233 (1988). Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    J.D. Warner, J.J. Pouch, S.A. Alterovitz, D.C. Liu and W.A. Lanford, Plasma deposited hydrogenated carbon on GaAs and InP, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A3: 900 (1985). Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Y. Catherine, P. Couderc and A. Zamouche, Dépôt de films minces de carbone amorphe hydrogéné par décharge RF dans les mélanges CH4 - He et C2H4 - He. 4eme Coll. Int. sur les Plasmas et la Pulvérisation cathodique, CIP 82, Nice (1982).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    D. Nir, R. Kalish and G. Lewin, Diamond-like carbon films of low hydrogen contents mode with a mixture of hydrocarbon and reactive gas, Thin Solid Films,117: 125 (1984). Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    K. Fujii, S.H. Yokata and N. Shóhata, Properties of diamondlike carbon films, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.,75: 765 (1987). Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    T. Mori and Y. Namba, Hard diamond like carbon films deposited by ionized deposition of methane gas, J. Vac. Sci. Technol., Al: 23 (1983). Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    O. Matsumoto, H. Toshima and Y. Kanzaki, Effect of dilution gases in methane on the deposition of diamond-like carbon in a microwave discharge, Thin Solid Films, 128: 341 (1985). Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    J. Kammermaier, G. Rittmayer and P. Schulte, Emission spectra relevant to plasma deposition of methane in microwave and radiofrequency induced discharges, ISPC 8, Tokyo, 1987, Symposium Proc., Vol. 3, K. Akashi and A. Kinbara ed., 1542 (1987). Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    M. Moisan, C. Barbeau, R. Claude, J. Margot-Chaker and G. Sauvé, RF or microwave plasma reactors ? Factors determining the optimum frequency of operation, CIPG 89, Antibes, 1989, suppt. Le Vide Les Couches Minces, 246: 145 (1989). Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    O. Matsumoto, T. Fujita and M. Uyama, Application of an ECR plasma apparatus to the deposition of carbonaceous films, ISPC 9, Pugnochiuso, 1989, Symposium Proc. vol. 3, R. d’Agostino ed., 1804 (1989).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    M. Morin and L. Vandenbulke, “Quelques aspects physiques et chimiques de la phase gazeuse dans un plasma multipolaire microonde pour le dépôt de films de a— C: H”, Proceed. of the 7th European conference on CVD, Perpignan, 1989,M. Ducarroir, C. Bernard and L. Vandenbulke ed., Coll. de Physique, suppt C5, 50: 929 (1989). Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    W.D. Partlow, R.R. Mitchell, P.J. Chantry and L.E. Kline, Deposition of carbon films in a microwave excited flowing afterglow reactor, ISPC 9, Pugnochiuso, Italie, 1989, Symp. Proc. Vol. 3; R. d’Agostino ed., 269 (1989).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    K. Ebihara, T. Ikegami, T. Matsumoto, S. Maeda and K. Harada, Amorphous C: H and amorphous Si C: H thin film deposition using a pulsed plasma process, ISPC 9, Pugnochiuso, Italie, 1989, Symp. Proc. Vol. 3; R. d’Agostino ed., 1479 (1989).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    G.M.W. Kroesen, Plasma deposition: investigations on new approach, Physics Doctor Thesis, Technische Universiteit, Eindhoven, 1988.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    J.M. Mackowski, M. Berton, P. Ganau and Y. Touzé, Comparaison physico-chimique des couches de carbone à large bande interdite (I—C) élaborées par différentes techniques plasma, CI P 82, Nice 1982, Le Vide - Les Couches Minces, suppl n°212: 99 (1982). Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    T. Miyazawa, S. Misawa, S. Yoshida and S. Gonda, Preparation and structure of carbon films deposited by a mass-separated C+ ion beam, J. Appl. Phys., 55: 188 (1984). Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    J. Ishikawa, K. Ogawa, Y. Takeiri and T. Takagi, Preparation of transparent carbon films by negative-carbon-ion-beam deposition, Proc. of the 9th Symp. on ISIAT, Tokyo: 255 (1985). Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    J.A. Thornton, Physical Vapor Deposition in semiconductor Materials and Process Technology Handbook, G. Mc Guire ed. Noyes publication, Park Ridge, 329 (1988).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    J.C. Angus, M.J. Mirtich and E.G. Wintucky, Ion beam deposition of amorphous carbon films with diamond like properties in Metastable Materials Formation by Ion Implantation, S.T. Picraux and W.J. Choyke ed. Elsevier Science Publishing Company, 433 (1982). Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    T. Shingyoji, N. Kikuchi, Proc. of the 9th Int. Vac. Cong. and 5th Int. Cong. on Solid Surf., Extended Abstracts, Madrid, TFP 13 A (1983). Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    F. Jansen, M. Machonkin, S. Kaplan and S. Hark, The effects of hydrogenation on the properties of ion beam sputter deposited amorphous carbon, Amer. Vac. Soc. Meet., Boston, TFTu MO8 (1984). Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    H.H. Andersen and H.L. Bay, Sputtering yield measurements in Sputtering by particle bombardment, I.R. Behrish ed., Topics in Appl. Phys. 47, Springer Verlag, Berlin, 166 (1981). Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    J.C. Angus, J.E. Stultz, P.J. Shiller, J.R. Mc Donald, M.J. Mirtich and S. Domitz, Composition and properties of the so-called “Diamond-like” amorphous carbon films, Thin Solid Films,118: 311 (1984). Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    R.C. de Vries, Synthesis of diamond under metastable conditions, Ann. Rev. Mat. Sci. 17: 161 (1987). Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    E.G. Spencer, P.H. Schmidt, D.C. Joy and F.J. Sansalone, Ion-beam-deposited polycristalline diamond like films, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29: 118 (1976). Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    K. Köhler, D.E. Horne and J.W. Coburn, Frequency dependence of ion bombardment of grounded surfaces in if argon glow discharges in planar systems, J. Appl. Phys., 58: 3950 (1985). Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    C.B. Zarowin, Relation between the RF discharge parameters and plasma etch rates, selectivity, and anisotropy, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A2: 1537 (1984). Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    M.D. Gill, Sustaining mechanisms in r.f. plasmas, Vacuum 34: 357 (1984). Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    P. Briaud, G. Turban and B. Grolleau, Energy distribution of ions in plasma etching reactors, Mat. Res. Symp. Proc. Vol. 68: 109 (1986). Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    J. Perrin, Pere Roca i Cabarrocas, B. Allain and J.M. Friedt, a- Si:H deposition from SiH4 and Si2H6 if discharges: pressure and temperature dependence of film growth inGoogle Scholar
  53. relation to the a-y discharge transition, Jap. J. Appl. Phys., 27: 2041 (1988). Google Scholar
  54. 53.
    Y. Catherine and A. Pastol, Ion flux measurements in discharges used for amorphous carbon film deposition, E-MRS Meeting Strasbourg 1987, Vol. XVII, 145. Google Scholar
  55. 54.
    J. Wagner, Ch. Wild, F. Pohl and P. Koidl, Optical studies of hydrogenated amorphous carbon plasma deposition, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48: 106 (1986). Google Scholar
  56. 55.
    J.L. Flouttard, Synthèse par décharge luminescente RF de films composites or-carbone à propriétés modulables, Thèse de Doctorat, Toulouse, 1989. Google Scholar
  57. 56.
    L. Athouel, Analyse spatiale par spectrométrie d’émission de plasmas de méthane utilisés pour le dépôt de couches minces de carbone, Rapport DEA, Nantes, Juillet 1989. Google Scholar
  58. 57.
    J.P. Warner, J.J. Pouch, S.A. Alterovitz, D.C. Liu and W.A. Lanford, Plasma deposited hydrogenated carbon on GaAs and InP, Amer. Vac. Soc., October 1984. Google Scholar
  59. 58.
    P. Couderc and Y. Catherine, Structure and physical properties of plasma-grown amorphous hydrogenated carbon films, Thin Solid Films,146: 93 (1987). Google Scholar
  60. 59.
    L.P. Anderson, A review of recent trends on hard i - c films, Thin Solid Films 86: 193 (1981). Google Scholar
  61. 60.
    K. Enke, Some new results on the fabrication of and the mechanical, electrical and optical properties of i - carbon layers, Thin Solid Films,80: 227 (1981). Google Scholar
  62. 61.
    J. Asmussen, Electron cyclotron resonance microwave discharges for etching and thin film deposition, J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A7: 883 (1989). Google Scholar
  63. 62.
    P.K. Shufflebotham, D.J. Thompson and H.C. Card, Behavior of downstream plasmas generated in microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition reactor, J. Appl. Phys.,64: 4398 (1988). Google Scholar
  64. 63.
    O.A. Popov and H. Waldron, Electron cyclotron resonance plasma stream source for plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A7: 914 (1989). Google Scholar
  65. 64.
    O. Matsumoto, T. Fujita and H. Uyama, Application of an ECR plasma apparatus to the deposition of carbonaceous films, 9th Int. Symp. on Plasma Chemistry, Pugnochiuso, Italy (1989), Symp. Proc. Vol. III, edited by R. d’Agostino: 1804 (1989).Google Scholar
  66. 65.
    W.D. Partlow, P.R. Mitchell, P.J. Chantry and L.E. Kline, Deposition of carbon films in a microwave-excited flowing afterglow reactor, 9th Int. Symp. on Plasma Chemistry, Pugnochiuso, Italy, 1989, Symp. Proc. III, edited by R. d’Agostino, L70 (1989).Google Scholar
  67. 66.
    D.J. Vitkavage, R.A. Rudder, G.G. Fountain and R.J. Markunas, Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of polycristalline diamond and diamond like films, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A6: 1812 (1988). Google Scholar
  68. 67.
    N. Savvides, Low energy ion assisted deposition of a- C: H films: A study of optical parameters with increasing hydrogenation, in E-MRS Symp. Proc. Amorphous hydrogenated Carbon films, edited by P. Koidl and P. Oelhafen, Les Editions de Physique - Strasbourg, France, XVII: 275 (1987).Google Scholar
  69. 68.
    D.R. McKenzie, R.C. Mc Phedran, N. Savvides and D.J.M. Cockayne, Analysis of films prepared by plasma polymerization of acetylene in a D.C. magnetron, Thin Solid Films 108: 247 (1983). Google Scholar
  70. 69.
    A. Bubenzer, B. Dischler and A. Nyaiesh, Optical properties of hydrogenated hard carbon thin films, Thin Solid Films 91: 81 (1987). Google Scholar
  71. 70.
    C.J. Robinson, R.N. Payne and A.E. Bell, Hydrogenated amorphous carbon dielectric coatings for magneto-optic data storage media, J. Appl. Phys. 64: 4646 (1988). Google Scholar
  72. 71.
    P. Wood, T. Wydeven and O. Tsuji, Characterization of diamond like hydrocarbon films grown using the’ RF self bias technique, 9th Int. Symp. on Plasma Chemistry, Pugno-chiuso, Italy (1989) Symp. Proc. Vol. edited by R. d’Agostino, Vol. III, 1485 (1989).Google Scholar
  73. 72.
    M. Morin, Contrôle du dépôt de films de carbone amorphe hydrogéné en plasma multipolaire microonde, Thèse de Doctorat, Orléans, 22 septembre 1989. Google Scholar
  74. 73.
    J.W. Zou, K. Schmidt, K. Reichelt and B. Dischler, The Properties of a - C: H films deposited by plasma decomposition of C2H2, J. Appl. Phys. 67: 487 (1990). Google Scholar
  75. 74.
    J. Zelez, Low stress diamond-like carbon films, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. Al: 305 (1983). Google Scholar
  76. 75.
    E.T. Prince and M.M. Romach, Thin films of hydrogenated amorphous carbon prepared by rf plasma decomposition of methane, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A3: 694 (1985). Google Scholar
  77. 76.
    D. Nir, Intrinsic stress in diamond like carbon films and its dependence on deposition parameters, Thin Solid Films 146: 27 (1987). Google Scholar
  78. 77.
    C. Wild, P. Koidl and J. Wagner, Plasma deposition of a - C: H films: the role of process gas, plasma chemistry and plasma surface interaction, in E-MRS Meeting Proceed. Vol. XVII. Amorphous Hydrogenated Carbon Films, edited by P. Koidl and P. Oelhafen, Les Editions de Physique - Strasbourg, France, 137 (1987).Google Scholar
  79. 78.
    L.P. Anderson, S. Berg, H. Norström, R. Olaison and S. Towta, Properties and coating rates of diamond-like carbon films produced by RF glow discharge of hydrocarbon gases, Thin Solid Films 63: 155 (1979). Google Scholar
  80. 79.
    O. Matsumoto and T. Katagiri, Effect of dilution gases in methane on the deposition of diamond like carbon in a microwave discharge II: effect of hydrogen, Thin Solid Films 146: 283 (1987). Google Scholar
  81. 80.
    K. Enke, Influence of argon and hydrogen admixture on properties of plasma deposited a- C: H films, E-MRS Meeting Strasbourg, in Amorphous Hydrogenated carbon films, edited by P. Koidl and P. Oelhafen, Vol. XVII, 117 (1987).Google Scholar
  82. 81.
    G. Amaratunga, A. Tutnis, K. Clay and W. Milne, Crystalline diamond growth in thin films deposited from CH4/Ar rf plasma, Appl. Phys. Lett.,55: 634 (1989). Google Scholar
  83. 82.
    S. Morita, Y.Takai, S. Hattori, M. Leda, K. Hida, S. Ikeda, S. Ishibashi and A.Ishitani, Effect of oxygen on amorphous carbon film formation, Proc. 10th Symp. on ISIAT’86, Tokyo, 457 (1986). Google Scholar
  84. 83.
    R.B. Lockwood, R.E. Miers, L.W. Anderson, J.E. Lawler and C.C. Lin, Effect of water vapor on a CH4 - H2 discharge plasma, Appl. Phys. Lett., 55: 1385 (1989). Google Scholar
  85. 84.
    J.J. Pouch, J.A. Alterovitz and J.D. Warner, Auger Electron Spectroscopy, Secondary Ion Mass spectroscopy and optical characterization of a - C: H and BN films, NASA Technical Memorandum 87258, 1986.Google Scholar
  86. 85.
    Y. Catherine, P. Couderc and A. Zamouche, Dépôt de films minces de carbone amorphe hydrogéné par décharge RF dans les mélanges CH4-He et C2H6 - He, CIP 82, suppl. n°212, Le Vide - Les couches minces: 126 (1982). Google Scholar
  87. 86.
    V.N. Polunin, R.P. Stanchula, A.A. Andreev and B.T. Melekh, Growth rate and properties of amorphous carbon layers produced in low-temperature plasma, ISV Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 22: 1288 (1983). Google Scholar
  88. 87.
    H. Kersten and G.M.W. Kroesen, On the temperature dependence of the deposition rate of amorphous hydrogenated carbon films, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A8: 38 (1990). Google Scholar
  89. 88.
    L. P. Andersson and S. Berg,Initial etching in an rf butaneplasma,Vacuum: 28, 449 (1978). Google Scholar
  90. 89.
    S. Mitura, L. Klimek and Z. Has, Etching and deposition phenomena in an RF CH4 plasma, Thin Solid Films, 147: 83 (1987). Google Scholar
  91. 90.
    R.W. Collins, In situ ellipsometry as a diagnostic of thin-film growth: Studies of amorphous carbon, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A7: 1378 (1989). Google Scholar
  92. 91.
    K. Tachibana, M. Nishida, H. Harima and Y. Urano, Diagnostic and modelling of a methane plasma used in the chemical vapour deposition of amorphous carbon films, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 17: 1727 (1984). Google Scholar
  93. 92.
    L.E. Kline, W.D. Partlow and W.E. Bies, Electron and chemical kinetics in methane rf glow-discharge deposition plasmas, J. Appl. Phys. 65: 70 (1989). Google Scholar
  94. 93.
    D.M. Mattox, Particle bombardement effects on thin film deposition: A review, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A7: 1108 (1989). Google Scholar
  95. 94.
    K. Roessler and G. Eich, Hot carbon atoms in the formation of amorphous hydrogenated carbon films, E-MRS Meeting - Strasbourg, Symposia Proc. Vol. XVII, Amorphous hydrogenated carbon films edited by P. Koidl and P. Oelhafen, Les Editions de Physique, 167 (1987).Google Scholar
  96. 95.
    J. Robertson, Clustering and gap states in amorphous carbon, Phil. Mag., 57: 143 (1988). Google Scholar
  97. 96.
    J.L. Bredas and G.B. Street, Electronic Properties of amorphous carbon films, J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys., 18: L651 (1985). Google Scholar
  98. 97.
    M.A. Tamor and C.H. Wu, Graphitic, network models of “diamond like” carbon, J. Appl. Phys. 67: 1007 (1990). Google Scholar
  99. 98.
    C.V. Deshpandey and R.F. Bunshah, Diamond and diamond like films: Deposition processes and properties, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A7: 2294 (1989). Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yves Catherine
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire des Plasmas et des Couches Minces - UMR 110Institut de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux 2 rue de la HoussiniereNantes Cedex 03France

Personalised recommendations