Importance of Surface Chemistry/Catalysis in the Processing of Semiconductors

  • J. Enrique Ortega
  • Rodolfo Miranda
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSB, volume 265)


Thin layers of alkali metals deposited on a GaAs(110) surface can enhance by-several orders of magnitude the oxidation kinetics of the substrate. Pure alkali oxides of different stoichiometry have been grown at 150 K on the GaAs(110) substrate, which does not react with the alkali oxides at this temperature. The spectral features of these different alkali oxides have been used to identify the oxygen species responsible for the Negative Electron Affinity activation of a Cs/O/GaAs photocathode, as well as the reaction products of the alkali-promoted oxidation of the GaAs(110) surface.


Alkali Metal Work Function Scan Tunneling Microscopy Photoemission Spectrum Alkali Metal Atom 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    C.R.M. Grovenor “Microelectronic Materials”, Adam Hilger (Bristol, 1989).Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    For a review of previous work see, R. Miranda in “Physics and Chemistry of Alkali Metal Adsorption”. Ed. H.P. Bonzel, A.M. Bradshaw and G. Ertl. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1989, p. 425.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    E.G. Michel, M.C. Asensio and R. Miranda in “Metallization and Metal-Semiconductor interfaces”. Ed. LP. Batra. Plenum Press, New York (1989).Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    J.E. Ortega, Ph.D. Thesis, UAM (1990), unpublished.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    J. Derrien and F. Arnaud d’Avitaya, Surf. Sci. 65, 668 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    P.N. First, R.A. Dragoset, J.A. Stroscio, R.J. Celotta and R.M. Feenstra, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A7, 2868 (1989).Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    T.M. Wong, D. Heskett, N.J. diNardo and E.W. Plummer, Surf. Sci. 208, L1 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    M. Prietsch, M. Domke, C. Laubschat, T. Mandel, C. Xue and G. Kaindl, Z.Phys. B. 74, 21 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Bulk work functions for the alkali metals are 2.42 (Na), 2.23 (K), 2.16 (Rb) and 1.8 eV (Cs).Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    I. Langmuir and K.H. Kingdon, Phys. Rev. 21, 380 (1923).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    D. Heskett, T.M. Wong, A.J. Smith, W.R. Graham, N.J. di Nardo and E.W. Plummer, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B7, 915 (1989).Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    J. Topping, Proc. Roy. Soc. London, A114, 67 (1927).Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    T.M. Wong, N.J. di Nardo, D. Heskett and E.W. Plummer, Phys. Rev. B. 41, 12342 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    C.Y. Su, P.W. Chye, P. Pianetta, I. Lindau and W.E. Spicer, Surf. Sci. 86, 894 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    J.E. Ortega, J. Ferrón, R. Miranda, C. Laubschat, M. Domke, M. Prietsch and G. Kaindl, Phys. Rev. B 39, 12751 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    F. Bartels and W. Monch, Surf. Sci. 143, 315 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    G. Remmers, M. Priestch, C. Laubschat, M. Domke, T. Mandel, J.E. Ortega and G. Kaindl, J. Chem. Phys. to be published.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    G. Landgren, R. Ludeke, Y. Jugnet, J.F. Morar and F.J. Himpsel, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 2, 351 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    H.I. Starnberg, P. Soukiassian and Z. Hurych, Phys. Rev. B 39, 12775 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    H.I. Ernst and M.L. Yu, Phys. Rev. B 41, 12953 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    D.S. Villars and I. Langmuir, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 53, 486 (1931).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    C.Y. Su, I. Lindau and W.E. Spicer, Cem. Phys. Lett. 87, 523 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    R. Miranda, M. Prietsch, C. Laubschat, M. Domke, T. Mandel and G. Kaindl, Phys. Rev. B 39, 10387 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    A.L. Vazquez de Parga, C. Ocal, J.E. Ortega and R. Miranda, Vacuum, in press.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    J. Ferrón, E.G. Michel and R. Miranda, unpublished.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    W. Ho in Ref. 1, p. 159Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    G. Pirug, R. Dziembaj and H.P. Bonzel, Surface Sci. 221, 553 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    L. Galán, private communication.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Enrique Ortega
    • 1
  • Rodolfo Miranda
    • 1
  1. 1.Departmento de Física de la Materia CondensadaUniversidad Autónoma de MadridMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations