Time-of-Flight Scattering and Recoiling Spectrometry (TOF-SARS) for Surface Structure Determinations
Low energy (<10 keV) ion scattering spectrometry1 is becoming increasingly important as a surface analysis technique in three specific areas, i.e. surface elemental analysis,2 probing surface structure,3 and studying electronic transition probabilities4 between ions or atoms and surfaces. This is largely due to the following recent advances: (i) impact collision ion scattering spectrometry3 (ICISS) in which the scattering angle is close to 180°, thus simplifying the scattering geometry and allowing experimental determination of the shadow cone radii, (ii) the use of alkali primary ions5 which have low neutralization probabilities, leading to higher scattered ion fluxes, (iii) time-of-flight (TOF) techniques6 with detection of both neutrals and ions in a multichannel mode in order to enhance sensitivity, (iv) scattered ion fractions4 to probe the spatial distributions of electrons, and (v) the use of recoiling7 atoms to determine the structure of light adsorbates on surfaces.
KeywordsAzimuthal Angle Target Atom Interatomic Spacing Surface Periodicity Surface Elemental Analysis
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