Time-of-Flight Scattering and Recoiling Spectrometry (TOF-SARS) for Surface Structure Determinations

  • J. Wayne Rabalais
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSB, volume 265)


Low energy (<10 keV) ion scattering spectrometry1 is becoming increasingly important as a surface analysis technique in three specific areas, i.e. surface elemental analysis,2 probing surface structure,3 and studying electronic transition probabilities4 between ions or atoms and surfaces. This is largely due to the following recent advances: (i) impact collision ion scattering spectrometry3 (ICISS) in which the scattering angle is close to 180°, thus simplifying the scattering geometry and allowing experimental determination of the shadow cone radii, (ii) the use of alkali primary ions5 which have low neutralization probabilities, leading to higher scattered ion fluxes, (iii) time-of-flight (TOF) techniques6 with detection of both neutrals and ions in a multichannel mode in order to enhance sensitivity, (iv) scattered ion fractions4 to probe the spatial distributions of electrons, and (v) the use of recoiling7 atoms to determine the structure of light adsorbates on surfaces.


Azimuthal Angle Target Atom Interatomic Spacing Surface Periodicity Surface Elemental Analysis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    T. Fauster, Surface Geometry Determination by Large-Angle Ion Scattering, Vacuum 38:119 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Y. S. Jo, J. A. Schultz, S. Tachi, S. Contarini and J. W. Rabalais, Surface Stoichiometry, Structure, and Chemisorption on Silicon Nitride Studied by Direct Recoiling, XPS, and AES, J. Appl. Phys. 60:2564 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Aono, Y. Hou, C. Oshima, and Y. Ishizawa, Low-Energy Ion Scattering From the Si(001) Surface, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49:567 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. W. Rabalais, J. A. Schultz, R. Kumar, and P. T. Murray, Simultaneous TOF Spectra of Sputtered and Scattered Neutrals and Ions From 3 keV Ne+, Ar+ and Ar+2 Bombardment of CsBr, J. Chem. Phys. 78:5250 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    H. Niehus, Analysis of the Pt(110)-(1×2) Surface Reconstruction, Surface Sci. 145:407 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. W. Rabalais, J. A. Schultz, and R. Kumar, Surface Analysis Using Scattered Primary and Recoiled Secondary Neutrals and Ions by TOF and ESA Techniques, Nucl. Inst. Meth. 218:719 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. W. Rabalais, Direct Recoil Spectrometry, CRC Critical Rev. Sol. St. Mat. Sci. 14:319 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    D. P. Smith, Scattering of Low-Energy Noble Gas Ions From Metal Surfaces, J. Appl. Phys. 38:340 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    L. Marchut, T. M. Buck, G. H. Wheatley, and C. J. McMahon, Jr., Surface Structure Analysis Using Low Energy Ion Scattering I. Clean Fe(001), Surface Sci. 141:549 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. M. van Zoest, J. M. Fluit, T. J. Vink, and B. A. van Hassel, Surface Structure Analysis of Oxidized Fe(100) by Low Energy Ion Scattering, Surface Sci. 182:179 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. W. Rabalais, O. Grizzi, M. Shi, and H. Bu, Surface Structure Determination From Scattering and Recoiling: W(211) and W(211)-p(1×2)-O, Phvs. Rev. Lett. 63:51 (1989) .CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    O. Grizzi, M. Shi, H. Bu, J. W. Rabalais, R. R. Rye, and P. Norlander, Determination of the Structure of Hydrogen on a W(211) Surface, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63:1408 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    O. Grizzi, M. Shi, H. Bu, J. W. Rabalais, and P. Hochmann, Time-Of-Flight Scattering and Recoiling. I. Structure of the W(211) Surface, Phys. Rev. B 40:10127 (1989).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    H. Bu, O. Grizzi, M. Shi, and J. W. Rabalais, Time-Of-Flight Scattering and Recoiling. II. The Structure of Oxygen on the W(211) Surface, Phys. Rev. B 40:10147 (1989) .CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. Shi, O. Grizzi, H. Bu, J. W. Rabalais, R. R. Rye, and P. Nordlander, Time-Of-Flight Scattering and Recoiling Spectrometry. III. The Structure of Hydrogen on the W(211) Surface, Phvs. Rev. B 40:10163 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    O. Grizzi, M. Shi, H. Bu, and J. W. Rabalais, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61:740 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    E. S. Mashkova and V. A. Molchanov, “Medium Energy Ion Reflection From Solids,” North-Holland, Amsterdam (1985).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biersack, and U. Littmark, “The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids,” Pergamon, New York (1985).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    S. R. Kasi, M. A. Kilburn, H. Kang, J. W. Rabalais, L. Tavernini, and P. Hochmann, Interaction of Low Energy Reactive Ions With Surfaces. III. Scattering of 30–200 eV Ne+, O+, C+, and CO+ From Ni(lll), J. Chem. Phys. 88:5902 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    E. Taglauer, M. Beckschulte, R. Margraf, and D. Mehl, Recent Developments in the Applications of Ion Scattering Spectroscopy, Nucl. Inst. Meth. B35:404 (1988) .CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    H. Knözinger and E. Taglauer, Ion Scattering Spectroscopy and Raman Spectroscopy for Catalyst Characterization, Amer. Che. Soc. Div. Petr. Chem. Prepr. 26:357 (1981).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    H. Knözinger, H. Jeziorowski, and E. Taglauer, Proc. 7th Int. Congr. Catalysts, Toyko 1980, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1981), Part A, 604.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. Leyrer, R. Margraf, E. Taglauer, and H. Knözinger, Solid-Solid Wetting and Formation of Monolayers in Supported Oxide Systems, Surface Sci. 201:603 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    R. Margraf, H. Leyrer, H. Knözinger, and E. Taglauer, Study of Molybdate Dispersion on Supported Catalysts Using Ion Scattering and Raman Spectroscopy, Surface Sci. 189/190:842 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    H. Jeziorowski and H. Knözinger, Raman and Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Characterization of Catalysts, J. Phys. Chem. 83:1166 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Wayne Rabalais
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of HoustonHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations