Heterogeneous Catalysts and Catalytic Processes

  • Helmut Knözinger
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSB, volume 265)


Heterogeneous catalysts play an extraordinary role in chemical and petrochemical industry and in environmental control. About 90% of all processes in chemistry and petrochemistry are employing catalysts. The catalyst consumption worldwide was approximately US $ 2.800 million in 1984 excluding car exhaust catalysts and was estimated to be about US $ 5.000 million in 1985. These numbers clearly emphasize the economic importance of catalysts and catalytic processes. In this context it must be noted that the value of the catalyst applied in a given process to produce a particular product under consideration is typically less than 1% of the total cost. Hence, the value added by the catalyst is to be considered as very high as compared to the other cost generating factors.


Selective Catalytic Reduction Ammonia Synthesis Bismuth Molybdate Petroleum Distillate Sodalite Cage 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helmut Knözinger
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Physikalische ChemieUniversität MünchenMünchen 2Germany

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